2007 年 80 巻 5 号 p. 272-289
This study tried to clarify the ecological damage in the areas of sheep transhumance, after the regime change of 1989, in the South Carpathian Mts. of Romania. The number of sheep increased by a factor of ten per hectare in areas where transhumance was practiced in the South Carpathian Mountains. This was because the sheep cheese produced in this area became more popular and increased in price. Jina and Poiana Sibiului villages are located on the third peneplain (900-1000m a. s. l.) of the Southern Carpathian Mountains, which consists of crystalline schist of Precambrian origin. Soil erosion of common lands and water pollution caused by the transhumance of sheep is a serious problem in these villages. Soil erosion speeds were measured by comparing profiles on Sept. 20, 2003, and Sept. 6, 2004. Soil erosion in these transhumance areas progressed more during that one year. The bedrock is extremely hard and the recovery of soil and vegetation will probably be difficult over the short term. In Patârlagele, where soils were composed of Miocene marl, soil erosion was very prevalent and easily progressed. However, the recovery of soils and vegetation was faster than in Jina and Poiana Sibiului, because of the softer and younger mother rock. In Jina and Poiana Sibiului, the Roma and Bayash people have been washing wool in the creeks. The water was seriously polluted as a result. Results of a chemical analysis showed high sodium, potassium and bicarbonate levels after wool washing. It is recommended that in areas with soil erosion, sheep would not be allowed entry so as to protect nature. Wool washing should be done in plants, where polluted water can be treated before being discharged into natural.