Prunus fruit tree species exhibit S-ribonuclease (S-RNase)-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI). This system is also present in the families Plantaginaceae and Solanaceae and the tribe Maleae of the family Rosaceae. In S-RNase-based GSI, self/nonself-recognition between the pistil and pollen is controlled by the pistil S determinant S-ribonuclease gene (S-RNase) and the pollen S determinant F-box gene(s). Accumulated evidence indicates the Prunus pollen S locus contains a single F-box gene, while that of other plants consists of multiple F-box genes. The pollen S F-box genes are called S haplotype-specific F-box (SFB), S-locus F-box brothers (SFBB), and S-locus F-box (SLF) in Prunus, Maleae, and Solanaceae species, respectively. The consequences of pollen S gene mutations and heterodiallelic pollen production differ between Prunus species and other plants, suggesting there are different pollen S functions during self/nonself-recognition. The GSI systems of Prunus and other plants are believed to include the ubiquitin proteasome system for protein degradation. However, Prunus SFB is assumed to facilitate the S-RNase cytotoxic effects during self-recognition, while SLFs and SFBBs are thought to function collaboratively during nonself-recognition to avoid S-RNase cytotoxicity. This review summarizes the distinct features of the S-RNase-based GSI mechanism in Prunus species, with special references to the recent advances in our understanding of S-RNase-based GSI.
2016 The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science (JSHS), All rights reserved.