2016 Volume 136 Issue 12 Pages 864-875
This paper develops an optimal power generation mix model considering nationwide high-voltage power grid in Japan and aims to analyze the massive deployment of variable renewable (VR) such as PV and wind. The model is developed on the basis of linear programming and includes 200 million constraints and 100 million endogenous variables. The highlight of the model consists in the detailed geographical resolution derived from 135 nodes and 166 high-voltage lines and in the detailed temporal resolution derived from 10 minutes in a whole year. As energy storage technology, the model explicitly incorporates the possible deployment of sodium-sulfur battery and Li-ion battery as well as pumped-storage hydro power plants. Active power flow of the grid is considered through a direct current (DC) method. Simulated results reveal that the considerable deployment of PV and wind does not necessarily require the large-scale installation of rechargeable battery, because the intermittency of PV and wind is controlled by the inter-regional power flow exchange, the flexible operation of ramp generators and pumped-storage hydro and the utilization of VR output curtailments. In Hokkaido area where a large installable potential of wind power is expected, the time interval when a system non-synchronous penetration (SNSP) ratio exhibits more than 50 percent amounts to 1320 hours per annum, implying the requirement of advanced grid operation for the sake of power system security.