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Internal Medicine
Vol. 47 (2008) No. 8 P 681-689

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http://doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.47.0906

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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as either kidney damage with urine, imaging, and histologic abnormalities, or a low estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for more than 3 months. The GFR is calculated using either the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation or the Cockcroft-Gault formula. CKD is a risk factor for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and cardiovascular disease. In Japan, the prevalence of ESRD is increasing and is currently more than 2,000 per million population. More than 40% of incident ESRD is due to diabetes mellitus (DM). The prevalence of a low GFR (<60 ml/min/1.73 m2) is estimated to be 20% of the adult population. Studies based on several community-based screening programs suggest that Japan has a higher prevalence of CKD than any other country. Early detection and treatment of CKD are necessary to decrease the incidence of ESRD and cardiovascular disease.

Copyright © 2008 by The Japanese Society of Internal Medicine

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