Objective This study was carried out to determine the characteristics of lupus cystitis and to compare those of Japanese cases with those of non-Japanese cases. We also report a novel therapy for lupus cystitis refractory to corticosteroid.
Methods For the literature search, published reports on lupus cystitis were searched by MEDLINE and ICHUSHI WEB. The inclusion criterion was interstitial cystitis, fulfilling the SLE classification criteria of American College of Rheumatology in 1997 and with either hydronephrosis detected by image studies (either computed tomography or ultrasonography) or bladder histopathology consistent with lupus cystitis. Interstitial cystitis without the fulfillment of the classification criteria was excluded. Patient demographic data and clinical data were retrieved from the literature and analyzed.
Results Including the present 2 cases, a total of 78 cases were identified as definitive cases of lupus cystitis (35 non-Japanese cases and 43 Japanese cases). Female patients accounted for 90.7%. The preceding gastrointestinal symptoms and subsequent urinary symptoms were the most frequent. Anti-double strand DNA antibody most often expressed in the 76.1% of the patients. Mean age and the prevalence of vomiting were significantly higher among Japanese patients compared to non-Japanese cases and the prevalence of CNS involvement was lower among Japanese patients (p=0.03, 0.04 and 0.001). We report a novel therapy (cetirizine hydrochloride) for lupus cystitis refractory to corticosteroid in one of the present cases.
Conclusion Lupus enteritis, female gender, and positive anti-dsDNA antibody are risk factors for lupus cystitis. Japanese cases showed older age, a higher prevalence of vomiting and a lower prevalence of CNS involvement. We also report the efficacy of the novel use of cetirizine hydrochloride for lupus cystitis refractory to corticosteroid.
2011 by The Japanese Society of Internal Medicine