Background and AimHelicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and aspirin are the major causes of gastric injury, and eradication of H. pylori can restore mucosal injury such as gastric ulcer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of low-dose aspirin on the healing process, determined by endoscopic features, after H. pylori eradication. Methods From 2001 to 2008, 12,887 patients underwent endoscopic examination at our hospital. From these, 100 patients with and 100 patients without H. pylori infection were analyzed to identify the endoscopic features characteristic of H. pylori-infected stomach. Based on these characteristic features, we observed the healing process of 89 patients not taking low-dose aspirin and 12 patients taking low-dose aspirin for 6 months, 1 year, and 5 years, which was successful in eradicating H. pylori. Results Diffuse redness (DR) of the fundic mucosa was the characteristic feature of H. pylori-infected stomach, whereas reddish streaks (RS) on the greater curvature of the antrum was the characteristic finding in non-infected stomach. In the no aspirin group, DR faded by 6 months and new expression of RS was observed 1 year after H. pylori eradication. In contrast, in the aspirin group, both fading of DR and the expression of RS were observed 5 years after eradication. Conclusion Low-dose aspirin delayed the early phase of the healing process in the gastric mucosa after H. pylori eradication.
Objective This study was carried out to determine the characteristics of lupus cystitis and to compare those of Japanese cases with those of non-Japanese cases. We also report a novel therapy for lupus cystitis refractory to corticosteroid. Methods For the literature search, published reports on lupus cystitis were searched by MEDLINE and ICHUSHI WEB. The inclusion criterion was interstitial cystitis, fulfilling the SLE classification criteria of American College of Rheumatology in 1997 and with either hydronephrosis detected by image studies (either computed tomography or ultrasonography) or bladder histopathology consistent with lupus cystitis. Interstitial cystitis without the fulfillment of the classification criteria was excluded. Patient demographic data and clinical data were retrieved from the literature and analyzed. Results Including the present 2 cases, a total of 78 cases were identified as definitive cases of lupus cystitis (35 non-Japanese cases and 43 Japanese cases). Female patients accounted for 90.7%. The preceding gastrointestinal symptoms and subsequent urinary symptoms were the most frequent. Anti-double strand DNA antibody most often expressed in the 76.1% of the patients. Mean age and the prevalence of vomiting were significantly higher among Japanese patients compared to non-Japanese cases and the prevalence of CNS involvement was lower among Japanese patients (p=0.03, 0.04 and 0.001). We report a novel therapy (cetirizine hydrochloride) for lupus cystitis refractory to corticosteroid in one of the present cases. Conclusion Lupus enteritis, female gender, and positive anti-dsDNA antibody are risk factors for lupus cystitis. Japanese cases showed older age, a higher prevalence of vomiting and a lower prevalence of CNS involvement. We also report the efficacy of the novel use of cetirizine hydrochloride for lupus cystitis refractory to corticosteroid.
Objective This study was investigated to determine the relationship between hyponatremia and in-hospital outcomes in Chinese patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Methods Plasma sodium concentration was obtained in all patients on admission and analyzed as hyponatremia versus normalnatremia. The relationships between hyponatremia and in-hospital mortality as well as heart failure were assessed. Results Of 1,620 patients, 212 (13.1%) patients had hyponatremia on presentation (sodium <135 mmol/L). Patients with hyponatremia had higher rates of in-hospital mortality (13.7% vs. 7.3%, p=0.002) and heart failure (30.2% vs. 18%, p<0.001). Patients with a sodium level of <130 mmol/L had an adverse event rate of 22.9% versus 11.0% in patients with a sodium level of 130 to 135 mmol/L (p=0.034). In multivariate logistic regression, hyponatremia was independently correlated with in-hospital mortality (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.02-3.06, p=0.042) and heart failure (OR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.06-2.43, p=0.025). Conclusion Hyponatremia is independently associated with in-hospital adverse outcomes in Chinese patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and the risk of in-hospital mortality was increased with the severity of hyponatremia.
Background Eosinophilic myocarditis is a rare clinical entity characterized by eosinophilia and myocardial inflammation with infiltrating eosinophils. The prognosis of patients with eosinophilic myocarditis is difficult to determine due the disease's rarity and varied causes; consequently, standard treatment has not been established. Objective To elucidate the clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of eosinophilic myocarditis, we retrospectively studied 7 patients fulfilling the criteria of the Japanese Circulation Society for eosinophilic myocarditis from among 64 patients admitted to our institution with eosinophilia over a 27-year period. Results The patients' ages at diagnosis ranged from 36 to 83 years (median: 52 years). The etiologies of the eosinophilic myocarditis were found to be idiopathic (3 patients), Churg-Strauss syndrome (2 patients), parasitic infection (1 patient) and chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) (1 patient). In addition to treatment for the underlying disease, we also administered prednisolone at a dose appropriate to the disease severity (6 of 7 patients). The patient who was diagnosed with a parasitic infection was treated only with albendazole, because eosinophilic myocarditis was mild. The patient with CEL was positive for the FIP1 L1-PDGFRα fusion gene and was treated with imatinib. Eosinophilic cationic protein was a useful marker for assessing disease activity and treatment efficacy. At the end of the study, of the seven patients treated, six were alive (86%), giving a mean survival time of 37 ± 40 months (mean ± SD). Conclusion Because eosinophilic myocarditis has various etiologies, it is essential to identify the etiology of the underlying disease. In the majority of eosinophilic myocarditis patients, administration of prednisolone may be an effective therapeutic modality producing a good outcome.
Aim To compare the incidence, and risk factors, in-hospital and at the 18-month prognosis of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) according to the definition utilized: as an increase in serum creatinine (Scr) ≥0.5 mg/dL (CIN 1) or as an increase in Scr ≥25% above baseline values (CIN 2). Methods and Results We prospectively evaluated CIN according to two different definitions in 150 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in simple lesions employing a low-medium dose of contrast media. Incidence of CIN was higher using the CIN 2 definition than CIN 1 (9.3% vs. 4%; p=0.0133). Patients with CIN 1 had a higher incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) (66.7% vs. 13.9%; p=0.006), higher mean serum creatinine levels (1.35±0.42 vs. 0.98±0.35; p=0.001) and lower mean eGFR levels (58.3±19.6 vs. 84±25.9; p=0.002). Patients with CIN 2 had a higher incidence of anemia (57.1% vs. 30.9%; p=0.049) and a higher mean contrast media volume was used (142.6±62.2 mL vs. 110.6±57.2 mL; p=0.05). In the multivariate analysis the only significant variable associated with CIN (CIN 2) was a higher volume of contrast media (OR=1.01; p=0.04). There were no differences in the major in-hospital events, but patients with CIN (both definitions) had a longer in-hospital stay. A persistent rise in serum creatinine at discharge occurred in only one patient. There were no differences between patients with and without CIN in events at the follow-up, with the exception of an increased risk of new hospitalization in patients with CIN 2. Conclusion After PCI employing low-medium dose of contrast media the incidence of CIN varied according to the definition used. Neither of the two definitions offers additional information compared with the other. Chronic kidney disease and baseline parameters of renal function are the risk factors associated with CIN 1; anemia and higher volume of contrast media are associated with CIN 2.
Objective The etiological agents associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Thailand have been studied extensively in bacterial pathogens, but not in viral pathogens. To clarify the association of viral pathogens with CAP, we conducted a comprehensive study of viral and bacterial pathogens in patients with CAP. Methods We enrolled 119 hospitalized patients with CAP in Nakornping Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand between 2006 and 2008. The severity of pneumonia was classified and the risk factors for death were estimated. Bacterial and fungal pathogens were determined from specimens taken from blood and sputum, and viral pathogens were identified from nasopharyngeal specimens by RT-PCR using primers specific for 7 respiratory viruses. Results Overall, 29 patients were HIV-infected and 90 patients were non-HIV-infected. The microbial pathogens most commonly isolated among HIV-infected patients were: 4 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 4 Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 3 Haemophilus influenzae. Among non-HIV infected patients, predominant microbial pathogens were: 6 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 5 Haemophilus influenzae and 4 Klebsiella pneumoniae. As for viral pathogens for CAP, influenza virus was identified from 2 HIV-infected patients and 5 non-HIV infected patients. In addition, human rhinovirus (HRV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were identified from 2 patients each among non-HIV-infected patients. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that the most common viral agent was influenza virus (5%), followed by HRV (2%) and RSV (2%) among CAP patients in northern Thailand. The underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) seems to be correlated with the severity of illness.
Objective Recent studies suggest that hemostatic and endothelial factors play a pivotal role in the development of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). Although plasma fibrinogen is an essential factor in the coagulation cascade, the relationship among fibrinogen, cognitive function, and SVD has not been clarified in community-based Asian populations. Because fibrinogen levels of Asians have been reported to be lower than these of Caucasians, the impact of fibrinogen on the development of SVD or dementia in Asians may be different from that of Caucasians. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study using MRI to determine the relationships among fibrinogen, cognitive function, and subclinical SVD in community-based Japanese elderly. Results Subjects with raised fibrinogen levels tended to have more lacunes and higher grades of white matter lesions (WMLs). Additionally, an independent association between fibrinogen and WMLs was determined by logistic regression analyses. Subjects with high fibrinogen levels accompanied by high von Willebrand factors or thrombomodulin levels had an increased tendency for the presence of WMLs. The relationship between the mean Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and the quartiles of fibrinogen levels was not statistically significant after controlling for age, gender, and WMLs; however, the mean MMSE scores in subjects without WML were related to the tertiles of the fibrinogen levels even after adjusting for conventional risks and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Conclusion The present study suggests that there is a close relationship between fibrinogen levels and subclinical WMLs, which are independent of conventional risk factors and inflammation, in community-based Japanese elderly.
Objective A rise in infections with multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-PA) is a significant contributor to increased morbidity and mortality of patients with hematologic malignancies. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of colistin (colistimethate sodium) in the treatment of serious infections caused by MDR-PA in these patients. Patients and Methods A matched pair analysis of renal function, toxicities, and outcome of 26 patients receiving colistin and control subjects was done. All patients had clinical signs of sepsis; P. aeruginosa was isolated from blood in 69% of patients in colistin group and 84% in control group. Patients treated with colistin received 3 million units every 8 hours for a median duration of 13 days. Additionally, patients received at least two additional antimicrobial or antifungal drugs. Results Resolution of infection was achieved in twenty patients (76.9%) receiving colistin and in 17 (65.4%) control subjects. Mortality rate was 11% in both groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the level of serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, or potassium levels before and after treatment between groups. Only one patient receiving colistin developed de novo renal failure and one displayed transient neurologic toxicity. Conclusion Our results suggest that in patients with hematologic malignancies, colistin is effective in treating severe infections caused by MDR-PA while maintaining an acceptable toxicity profile. Prospective randomized studies comparing efficacy and safety of colistin with those of other antipseudomonal drugs are needed.
A 58-year-old man with a 10-year history of type II diabetes mellitus presented with progressive jaundice that began three days before admission. Thorough history-taking revealed that the patient had started on a new medication, sitagliptin, one month previously for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Laboratory investigations showed severe liver dysfunction. Ultrasonography detected no extrahepatic biliary duct dilatation or gallstones. Abdominal computed tomography excluded pancreatic and hepatic focal lesions. Liver function improved upon discontinuation of sitagliptin. Drugs are an important, often unrecognized, cause of acute liver injury. This report presents a rare case in which sitagliptin was responsible for acute hepatic damage. As demonstrated, a thorough drug history is helpful in any case of unexplained liver injury.
Inappropriate inhibition of atrial pacing due to T-wave oversensing (TWOS) was observed in a patient presenting with congenital long QT syndrome, treated with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and beta-adrenergic blocker. Development of TWOS was associated with further QT interval prolongation in the absence of amplitude changes in the intracardiac T and R waves. Replacement of the ICD generator with a sensing filter designed to attenuate the intracardiac T wave suppressed TWOS and normalized the pacing functions.
Early and accurate diagnosis of infective aortic aneurysms (IAA) is critical for adequate treatment to optimize patient outcome. We report the case of an 84-year-old man who complained of severe back pain with high fever and was finally diagnosed as Escherichia coli-related IAA. Computed tomography showed a periaortic soft tissue density and irregular fringe adjacent to the non-dilated abdominal aorta suggesting the presence of pseudoaneurysm. In addition to intravenous antibiotic injection, an aneurysmectomy with extensive debridement and an in situ graft, were successfully performed. The case emphasizes the potential for rapid IAA change and the need for frequent radiologic follow-up.
We report a 36-year-old woman presenting with hypertensive encephalopathy followed by bulbar palsy and quadriplegia. After an extensive screening for secondary causes of hypertension, the patient was suspected of having pheochromocytoma due to increased levels of catecholamines in the plasma and the urine, and positive 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) accumulation in the gallbladder. However, MIBG accumulation was not reproducible without any tumors accompanying this accumulation in the gallbladder. A diagnosis of acute intermittent porphyria was finally confirmed based on the characteristic pictures, increased urinary excretion of porphobilinogen, and identification of a heterozygous missense mutation of R173W in the hydroxymethylbilane synthase gene. This case highlights a pitfall in utilizing MIBG to detect a source of excessive catecholamine and also suggests the importance of having a complete clinical history and extensive work-up of any possible differential diagnosis. We also review the potential mechanism by which false-positive MIBG accumulation occurs.
An 81-year-old man was hospitalized because of fever and pain in the temporal region. Temporal artery biopsy revealed temporal arteritis; steroid therapy was started. Chest computed tomography and kidney biopsy revealed interstitial pneumonia and necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis, respectively. Because his myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) level was 215.0 U/mL, a diagnosis of microscopic polyangitis (MPA) was made. The patient was discharged after reduction of the steroid dose. However, his respiratory symptoms exacerbated, necessitating rehospitalization. He died 1 week later due to respiratory failure. MPA rarely involves the temporal artery. In the cases of large vessel lesions, ruling out MPA is important.
Lophomonas blattarum, a rare protozoa, was involved in pulmonary infections of transplant recipients. We report 2 cases of late onset pulmonary L. blattarum infection in renal transplant recipients with normal graft function and relative normal immune function. The diagnosis in both cases was confirmed by bronchoscopy and broncho alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid examination. Both cases were sensitive to metronidazole treatment, but one case did not completely recover during the follow-up. The diagnosis and treatment were discussed to facilitate improvement in the recognition of this rare infection, especially in transplant recipients.
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) act only in the stomach, although the proton pump, H+,K+-ATPase exists and contributes to H+ and K+ homeostasis in the kidney. We encountered two hypokalemic cases receiving omeprazole. These cases were women ages 69 and 80 years old. Their serum potassium levels decreased with accelerated urinary potassium excretion with the use of omeprazole, and recovered by potassium-supplement and the discontinuation of omeprazole. Because inhibitory effects of PPIs on H+,K+-ATPase are exerted only in acidic condition, hypokalemia is not generally introduced by PPIs alone. However, in extreme alkalosis or impaired K+-recycling system, PPIs may cause hypokalemia unrelated to hypomagnesemia.
A 70-year-old Japanese man with chronic kidney disease under treatment with oral prednisolone for organizing pneumonia developed pulmonary aspergilloma. The patient was started on micafungin (MCFG), with no addition of any other new drug. About 5 weeks later, aggravation of his normocytic anemia associated with a low reticulocyte count was observed. Bone marrow puncture and biopsy revealed intense hypoplasia of the erythroblasts. As there was no evidence of malignancy, human parvovirus B19 infection, autoimmune diseases or hemorrhage, the patient was diagnosed as having acquired pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). The anemia improved along with an increase of the reticulocyte count to the normal level within 12 weeks of discontinuation of the MCFG therapy. The patient showed no evidence subsequently of any recurrence of the normocytic normochromic anemia or relapse of the PRCA. This is the first reported case of PRCA associated with MCFG.
We herein present an autopsy case of occult lung adenocarcinoma that masqueraded as rapid progression of preexisting asbestosis. A 66-year-old man with an initial diagnosis of asbestosis experienced progressive dyspnea for over four years, and eventually died of respiratory failure. A series of chest computed tomography scans showed progression of extensive fibrosis from the right lower lobe to the left lobes. An autopsy revealed that well-differentiated adenocarcinoma with prominent reactive fibrosis was diffusely distributed within the fibrotic lesions in addition to the underlying asbestosis, and the unusually rapid progression of asbestosis was attributed to the reactive fibrosis of occult lung adenocarcinoma.
Midventricular obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (MOHC) is a rare form of cardiomyopathy that was demonstrated to have caused embolic stroke in two patients. In both cases, the embolic sources of stroke were thrombi in an apical aneurysm caused by turbulent stasis of blood flow and subsequent injury of myocardial endocardium. Even without atrial fibrillation, apical aneurysm can induce emboligenic stroke in MOHC.
A 51-year-old woman had developed fever and consciousness disturbance at 47 years of age. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed acute disseminating encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like lesions without gadolinium enhancement (GDE). One year later, she had an episode of bilateral optic neuritis and cerebellar ataxia. Speech deficit and right hand weakness occurred at the age of 51 years. Neurological examination showed motor aphasia, finger agnosia, right-left disorientation, and right hand paresis. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO)-IgG was seropositive. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed negative results for myelin basic protein and oligoclonal IgG band. The IgG index was normal. Brain MRI revealed a tumefactive lesion in the left temporo-parietal region and conglomerate ovoid lesions in the pericallosal regions. No GDE was found in the brain lesions. Visual evoked potential test showed bilateral prolongation of P100 latencies. She was treated twice with methylprednisolone pulse therapy followed by oral prednisolone, but the motor aphasia did not respond to steroid treatment. She had no prior history of myelitis and was diagnosed as NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Similar to previous studies of NMO-IgG seropositive extensive brain lesions, this patient with NMOSD indicated no GDE in tumefactive lesions at two episodes of encephalopathy. Compared to multiple sclerosis (MS), a high frequency of non-enhancing tumefactive lesions is reported in patients with NMO or NMOSD. The absence of GDE in tumefactive lesions could help to differentiate between NMO and MS.
We report a 48-year-old man who developed rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after a successful treatment with peg-IFN-alpha plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. He had a history of smoking and a single copy of the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE). In a retrospective analysis, he exhibited the anti-CCP antibodies before the start of IFN plus ribavirin treatment. However, the titers of anti-CCP antibodies and BAFF levels were elevated by the IFN plus ribavirin therapy. These observations suggest that IFN plus ribavirin therapy may work as a "trigger" for RA in genetically and environmentally predisposed individuals by affecting the cytokine network.
A 75-year-old man with interstitial pneumonia due to ANCA-related vasculitis requiring immunosuppressive treatment was admitted to our hospital because of fever and rapidly progressive dyspnea. Chest CT showed diffuse ground-glass opacity with infiltration shadow in the bilateral lungs. We established a definitive diagnosis by isolating Mycobacterium massiliense on culture examination of acid-fast bacilli from peripheral blood and sputum. We began to administer CAM, LVFX, AMK, IPM/CS to this patient two weeks after admission. However, he died of respiratory failure and septic shock. There are few case reports of pulmonary lesion with septicemia due to Mycobacterium massiliense.
A 61-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer was diagnosed as having acquired Fanconi syndrome. In this case, the cause of this syndrome was most likely zoledronic acid (Zometa®), which had been infused intravenously at a dose of 4 mg over 15 minutes weekly because of malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Zoledronic acid is nephrotoxic and may induce severe tubular dysfunction, which can cause development of Fanconi syndrome. Therefore, close monitoring of proximal tubular function is recommended during therapy with zoledronic acid, especially when frequent administration of zoledronic acid is needed.