Eosinophils are important effector cells in airway inflammation, as pleiotropy and heterogeneity can be linked to various pathophysiologies in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Sputum eosinophils can reflect the heterogeneity of airway inflammation, and owing to their traits, blood eosinophils can be a surrogate and potential biomarker for managing both conditions. Blood eosinophils are activated via the stimulation of type 2 cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-5, IL-4/13, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin. There is sufficient evidence to support the relationship between the blood eosinophil count and clinical outcomes, including pulmonary function decline, exacerbations, all-cause mortality, and treatment response to inhaled corticosteroids and biologics. Thus, there is growing interest in the use of blood eosinophils for the management of these diseases. Compiling recent evidence, we herein review the significance of measuring blood eosinophils in asthma and COPD.