TAFRO syndrome was first described in 2010, standing for thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, reticulin fibrosis and organomegaly. Because the lymph node histopathology of TAFRO syndrome mimics idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD), some researchers consider TAFRO syndrome to be a subtype of iMCD. However, the clinical features of TAFRO syndrome considerably differ from those of iMCD without TAFRO. The clinical features of patients with TAFRO syndrome with or without iMCD-histopathology are similar, and these patients require an accurate diagnosis and urgent treatment. Although a histological diagnosis, including a differential diagnosis, is important, lymph node involvement in patients with TAFRO syndrome is usually modest or sometimes absent. Furthermore, a bleeding tendency due to thrombocytopenia and severe anasarca hampers performing a biopsy. Nonetheless, patients with various other disorders may manifest TAFRO syndrome-like symptoms, making the differential diagnosis in borderline cases difficult. Therefore, the establishment of precise and specific biomarkers is important.