Traditionally, the treatment of chronic constipation has focused on lifestyle modification, dietary guidance and therapy, and osmotic and stimulant laxatives. Recently, several drugs with new mechanisms of action have been introduced as treatments for chronic constipation. In Japan, polyethylene glycol and lactulose can now be administered under insurance coverage. The number of treatment options for constipation has increased dramatically. First, lifestyle modifications and dietary therapies must be implemented. If constipation does not improve sufficiently, specialized functional tests are performed to diagnose physiological subgroups. If functional tests are not available, patients are classified as having the "decreased frequency of defecation" type or the "difficult defecation" type based on the patient's symptoms, with treatment applied according to each type. Medical therapy includes osmotic laxatives, secretagogues, bile acid transporter inhibitors, probiotics, prokinetics, and Kampo medicines. The temporary use of stimulant laxatives, suppositories, enemas, and digital evacuation is also recommended. The usefulness of biofeedback is yet to be determined.