2023 Volume 8 Issue 2 Pages 36-48
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) consist of abnormal communications between the arteries and veins. They can involve any part of the body and extremity and grow in proportion to age and in response to hormonal influence or trauma. When symptoms progress from Schöbinger clinical stage II to III, transcatheter and/or direct puncture embolization are less-invasive and repeatable options for symptom palliation. The goal of embolization is to obliterate the AV shunt, and the choice of lesion access and embolic agents is based on the individual anatomy and flow. Embolization can be technically challenging due to complex vascular anatomy and morbidity risks. Therefore, a multidisciplinary management is essential for the diagnosis and therapeutic intervention of AVMs.