2011 年 1 巻 p. 3-13
The purpose of this paper is to consider ethical basis about sharing of benefit which is brought from human genome information. Firstly, I consider concept of information, and discuss a position of human genome information. I examine a concept of information by Nishigaki which treats a relationship between information and a system of biological processes. In the respect for considering a concept of information in a point of contact between life and information, the concept of information by Nishigaki has an important implication in terms of information. About a position of human genome information, the information is classified according to cognitive ability or disability of us. Secondly, I discuss the fact that human genome information has three aspects, and consider the value of human genome information. Three aspects are property, ownership, and sharing. In addition, I focus on sharing of human genome information. In terms of each of us having human genome information, we could think that everyone has group individuality. Finally, about the norm of sharing of benefit which is brought from human genome information, I consider an ethical basis of the norm in a point of contact between a concept of information and arguments of property. I refer to a feature and meaning of International Declaration on Human Genetic Data (2003), and focus on Article 19 – Sharing of benefits. I limit object to access to drug medicine and supplies of medicines. In addition, I refer to a concept of dignity in human body in arguments of property, and I present three concepts of dignity according to three types of genome information. In conclusion, these concepts of dignity could be ethical bases of patient's right to access to drug medicine and company's duty to make patients get medicines.