1997 年 12 巻 p. 158-168,287
Direct elections of the Presidency after the constitutional amendment of 1962 had the effects of not only developing bipolarisation between Left and Right, but also changing campaigning styles. Presidential candidates are being forced to mediatise their candidacy in a massive scale.
As money becomes more important to the pursuit of election campaign, equality of opportunity declined. Since 1988, France has introduced a set of legal restrictions on campaign funds. Corporate contributions are banned by the 1995 legislation. In 1995 election, campaign expenditure is limited to 90 millions of francs (or 120 millions for the two candidates presenting the second round). Candidates must submit a statement of income and expenditure to the Consutitutional Council, which has a power to examine, correct or reject it.
The influence of television has been increased from election to election. The governing body of broadcasting, Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel, acts as a watchdog during election time and ensures that all candidates have equal access to television and radio channels.