1998 年 13 巻 p. 149-158,272
Since 1928 in Japan, 24 times of general elections, except 1945, were carried out with constituencies returning several members but single vote. However the 1996 general election was fought under a mixed system. The new system consist of the 300 members elected in single-member constituency and the 200 proportionally distributed for parties in 11 blokes. The elector has two votes, one vote for a candidate in a constituency and anther for a party in a block. We could find some kind of mixed system in 19 century, but the proposal by Leon Bulum, in 1926, was first attempt in national election, in which 332 seats elected in single-member constituency and 212 divided proportionally in nation wide. But it was not adapted. Now a days, 18 countries out of 181 use mixed system. In this paper, we compare the systems of Japan, Germany, Italy, Hungary and a variation of Italian method, according to simulation by the Japanese, German and Italian election data. In a word, Japanese system are profitable for a big party as single-member constituency system, but it is insufficient to reflect minor opinion in Diet.