Aim: HDL has anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages, although the mechanism of action remains unclear. We hypothesized that HDL suppresses the conversion of macrophage-secreted factors into proinflammatory factors via binding, and tried to identify the factor that could form a complex with HDL and/or apolipoprotein (apo) A-I.
Methods and Results: In conditioned media obtained from human monocyte-derived macrophages, we found an apo A-I binding protein and identified the protein as progranulin/proepithelin/acrogranin/PCDGF. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis showing that progranulin binds and forms a complex with apo A-I and the presence of progranulin in the HDL fraction in the sera indicated that progranilin is a novel apolipoprotein. Conditioned media of HEK293 cells transfected with progranulin augmented the expression of TNF-alpha and IL-1-beta on macrophages, but these effects of progranulin were inhibited by co-incubation with HDL or apo A-I. Anti-progranulin antibodies also reduced the expression of TNF-alpha and IL-1-beta on macrophages. Granulins as conversion products derived from progranilin increased TNF-alpha and IL-1-beta expression and the effects were not suppressed by HDL.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of HDL on macrophages might be due to suppression of the conversion of progranulin into proinflammatory granulins by forming a complex.