Article ID: 44438
Aims: The frequency of breakfast intake has been reported to be inversely associated with the risk of cardiovascular events; however, it is uncertain what the impact of the energy and nutrient intakes from breakfast are. We assessed the association between these intakes from breakfast and the risk of stroke prospectively.
Methods: In a baseline survey of four Japanese communities between 1981 and 1990, we enrolled 3 248 residents (1 662 men and 1 586 women) aged 40–59 years who were free from stroke and heart disease and who responded to the 24-hour dietary recall survey. We assessed the dietary intake at breakfast, lunch, dinner, and other times separately.
Results: During the median 25-year follow-up, 230 individuals (147 men and 83 women) developed stroke. After adjustment for age, community, other dietary intakes, and lifestyle and physiological factors, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of intracerebral hemorrhage for the highest versus lowest quartiles of energy intake from breakfast were 0.38 (0.15–0.99) in men and 1.36 (0.36–5.10) in women. For the major nutrients, a higher saturated or monounsaturated fat intake at breakfast was associated with a reduced risk of intracerebral hemorrhage in men, and remained statistically significant after further adjustment for intake of other major nutrients from breakfast.
Conclusions: A higher intake of energy from breakfast, primarily saturated or monounsaturated fat, was associated with a reduced risk of intracerebral hemorrhage in Japanese men.