2018 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 246-251
We investigated the risk factors of and appropriate treatment for cytomegalovirus colitis in patients with ulcerative colitis, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to detect cytomegalovirus in the colonic mucosa. Between February 2013 and January 2017, patients with exacerbated ulcerative colitis who were admitted to our hospital were consecutively enrolled in this retrospective, single-center study. Patients were evaluated for cytomegalovirus using serology (antigenemia) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses of the colonic mucosa, which were sampled during colonoscopy. Of 86 patients, 26 (30.2%) had positive quantitative polymerase chain reaction results for cytomegalovirus; only 4 were also positive for antigenemia. The ages of the cytomegalovirus DNA-positive patients were significantly higher than those of negative patients (p = 0.002). The mean endoscopic score of cytomegalovirus DNA-positive patients was significantly higher than that of cytomegalovirus DNA-negative patients. Treatment with combined immunosuppressants was associated with an increased risk of cytomegalovirus. Fourteen of 15 (93.3%) cytomegalovirus DNA-positive patients who were negative for antigenemia showed a clinical response to treatment with additional oral tacrolimus, without ganciclovir. cytomegalovirus reactivation in active ulcerative colitis is associated with age and combined immunosuppressant therapy. Because additional treatment with tacrolimus was effective, patients who are negative for antigenemia and cytomegalovirus DNA-positive colonic mucosa may recover without antiviral therapy.