The most fundamental function of vitamin K is to activate the blood coagulation factors in the liver. Despite the recent recognition of its extra-hepatic actions, the current Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamin K is based on the amount necessary for maintaining the normal blood coagulation in many countries. To define the Dietary Reference Intake for vitamin K, appropriate biomarkers well-reflecting the vitamin K status are essential. Unfortunately, however, no markers are currently available with properties enabling us to properly define the vitamin K status; i.g., no interference by other factors and the presence of widely approved cut-off values. Thus, Adequate Intake is determined, which is an index based on the representative dietary intake data from healthy individuals. Recently, epidemiological studies have been reported regarding the relationship between vitamin K and noncommunicable diseases including osteoporotic fracture. Furthermore, studies focusing on the relationship between vitamin K intake and metabolic syndrome, physical function, depression, cognition, and all-cause mortality have become available, although limited in number. This review summarizes the recent findings in favor of the novel functions of vitamin K. More epidemiological studies are needed to define the appropriate vitamin K intake value based on the prevention of various disorders.
We recently reported that dietary cystine maintained plasma mercaptalbumin levels in rats fed low-protein diets. The present study aimed to compare the influence of low-protein diets supplemented with cystine and methionine, which is another sulfur amino acid, on plasma mercaptalbumin levels in rats. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a 20% soy protein isolate diet (control group), 5% soy protein isolate diet (low-protein group) or 5% soy protein isolate diet supplemented with either methionine (low-protein + Met group) or cystine (low-protein + Cyss group) for 1 week. The percentage of mercaptalbumin within total plasma albumin of the low-protein + Met group was significantly lower than that of the control and low-protein + Cyss groups. No significant differences in the mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, and cyclooxygenase 2 in blood cells were observed between the low-protein + Met and low-protein + Cyss groups. Treatment with buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, did not influence the percentage of mercaptalbumin within total plasma albumin in rats fed the low-protein diet supplemented with cystine. These results suggest that supplementation with cystine may be more effective than that with methionine to maintain plasma mercaptalbumin levels in rats with protein malnutrition. Cystine might regulate plasma mercaptalbumin levels via the glutathione-independent pathway.
Monascus pigment is derived from red-mold rice fermented by monascus purpureus and utilized as a natural coloring agent and natural food additive in East Asia. Monascus pigment works as a radical scavenger. Some antioxidant combine cancer chemotherapy to protect normal tissue because chemotherapy induce side effect for normal tissue. This combination therapy can attenuate the cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs by antioxidants effects. However, the effect of this combination therapy for cancer cells dose not investigate enough. In this study, we investigated the combination effect of antioxidants and anticancer drugs. We selected an antioxidant as monascus pigment and following four anticancer drugs: doxorubicin, tamoxifen, paclitaxicel, and cyclophosphamide. Combination treatment with monascus pigment and cyclophosphamide enhanced the cytotoxicity of cyclophosphamide. Moreover, this combination treatment accelerated apoptosis. The spot on TLC assay board of the monascus pigment and cyclophosphamide mixture is different from the spot of monascus pigment alone and cyclophosphamide alone. The interaction between monascus pigment and cyclophosphamide can produce some cytotoxicity compounds or accelerate intracellular cyclophosphamide accumulation. Hence, we concluded that the interaction of both cyclophosphamide and monascus pigment involved enhancement of cyclophosphamide cytotoxicity.
The health-promoting effects of exercise are explained by the biological adaptation to oxidative stress via maintenance of mitochondrial function especially in muscles. Although the induction of antioxidant enzymes in muscle is a useful indicator of exercise, it is not widely used due to the invasiveness of muscle biopsies. To explore more suitable biomarkers for exercise, we examined mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 14 volunteers in an exercise intervention study. These results were validated in a cross-sectional study of 392 healthy individuals, and we investigated the association between exercise habits, smoking, alcohol consumption, mitochondrial DNA, malondialdehyde, and various clinical features. The 2-week exercise increased superoxide dismutase 1 at the end of exercise and superoxide dismutase 2 from week 4 onwards. In the cross-sectional study, superoxide dismutase 2 correlated positively with exercise habits and number of mitochondrial DNA, and negatively with malondialdehyde levels. Multivariate binominal regression analysis showed that superoxide dismutase 2 was positively associated with exercise habits in nonsmoking individuals. These results suggest that mRNA levels of superoxide dismutase 2 in blood might be a potentially useful biomarker for exercise in healthy individuals. This study was registered with University Hospital Medical Information Network (No: 000038034).
Multiple sclerosis is an organ-specific autoimmune disease that targets the myelin antigen in the central nervous system. Nobiletin is a dietary polymethoxylated flavonoid found in citrus fruits. In this study, we investigated how nobiletin affects the disease state and immune responses to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice. Nobiletin was administered orally from 14 days before immunization until the end of the experiment, and clinical scores were determined. The production levels of interleukin-17A and interferon-γ were measured in a culture supernatant of splenocytes stimulated with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. In addition, flow cytometric analysis was performed to examine the effect of nobiletin on T cell differentiation in vitro. Administration of nobiletin significantly decreased the clinical score and interleukin-17A production in splenocytes. Furthermore, in vitro analysis showed that nobiletin significantly suppressed Th17 cell differentiation and interleukin-17A production in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest that nobiletin attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis severity through modulation of Th17 cell differentiation.
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is the chronic liver disease leading to cirrhosis and cancer and its prevalence is increasing. Some agents are under clinical trials for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis treatment. We previously reported Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis effectively prevented non-alcoholic steatohepatitis progression in our model rats. The contribution of phycocyanin, an ingredient of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis, was limited. We, therefore, have looked for more active components of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis. In this study, we pursued the effect of biopterin glucoside, another bioactive ingredient of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis. We found Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis and biopterin glucoside oral administrations effectively alleviated oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin signal failure, and prevented fibroblast growth factor 21 gene overexpression in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis rat livers. We concluded biopterin glucoside is a major component of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis action.
Dietary intervention to prevent Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-gastric cancer might be ideal by long-term intervention, rejuvenating action, and no risk of bacterial resistance. Stimulated with finding that kimchi prevented H. pylori-gastric cancer, we compared the efficacy of cancer preventive kimchi (cpkimchi) and standard recipe kimchi (skimchi) and the efficacy between fermented kimchi and non-fermented kimchi (kimuchi) in H. pylori-initiated gastric cancer model and explored novel mechanisms hinted from RNAseq transcriptome analysis. Animal models assessing gastric pathology on 24 and 36 weeks after H. pylori initiated, salt diet-promoted gastric mutagenesis model showed fermented cpkimchi afforded the best outcome of either rejuvenating atrophic gastritis or inhibiting tumorigenesis compared to skimchi and kimuchi. Highest inhibition of atrophic gastritis was achieved with cpkimchi, while significantly lower in kimuchi. Transcriptomic analysis showed ameliorated-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, -oxidative stress, and -apoptosis as major rejuvenating action of cpkimchi. Homogenates from animal model showed that elevated expressions of p-PERK, IRE, ATF6, p-elf, and XBP1 in control group, while significantly decreased with dietary intake of only cpkimchi. Significantly increased expressions of HO-1 and γ-GCS were only noted with cpkimchi. Conclusively, long-term dietary intervention of fermented cpkimchi can be potential way preventing H. pylori-associated carcinogenesis via rejuvenation of atrophic gastritis.
Dietary intervention to prevent Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-gastric cancer might be ideal because of no risk of bacterial resistance, safety, and rejuvenating action of atrophic gastritis. We have published data about the potential of fermented kimchi as nutritional approach for H. pylori. Hence recent advances in RNAseq analysis lead us to investigate the transcriptome analysis to explain these beneficiary actions of kimchi. gastric cells were infected with either H. pylori or H. pylori plus kimchi. 943 genes were identified as significantly increased or decreased genes according to H. pylori infection and 68 genes as significantly changed between H. pylori infection and H. pylori plus kimchi (p<0.05). Gene classification and Medline database showed DLL4, FGF18, PTPRN, SLC7A11, CHAC1, FGF21, ASAN, CTH, and CREBRF were identified as significantly increased after H. pylori, but significantly decreased with kimchi and NEO1, CLDN8, KLRG1, and IGFBP1 were identified as significantly decreased after H. pylori, but increased with kimchi. After KEGG and STRING-GO analysis, oxidative stress, ER stress, cell adhesion, and apoptosis genes were up-regulated with H. pylori infection but down-regulated with kimchi, whereas tissue regeneration, cellular antioxidative response, and anti-inflammation genes were reversely regulated with kimchi (p<0.01). Conclusively, transcriptomes of H. pylori plus kimchi showed significant biological actions.
Supported with significant rejuvenating and regenerating actions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in various gastrointestinal diseases including Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-associated gastric diseases, we have compared these actions among placenta derived-MSCs (PD-MSCs), umbilical cord derived-MSCs (UC-MSCs), and adipose tissue derived-MSCs (AD-MSCs) and explored contributing genes implicated in rejuvenation of H. pylori-chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and tumorigenesis. In this study adopting H. pylori-initiated, high salt diet-promoted gastric carcinogenesis model, we have administered three kinds of MSCs around 15–18 weeks in H. pylori infected C57BL/6 mice and sacrificed at 24 and 48 weeks, respectively, in order to either assess the rejuvenating capability or anti-tumorigenesis. At 24 weeks, MSCs all led to significantly mitigated atrophic gastritis, for which significant inductions of autophagy, preservation of tumor suppressive 15-PGDH, attenuated apoptosis, and efficient efferocytosis was imposed with MSCs administration during atrophic gastritis. At 48 weeks, MSCs administered during H. pylori-associated atrophic gastritis afforded significant blocking the progression of CAG, as evidenced with statistically significant reduction in H. pylori-associated gastric tumor (p<0.05) accompanied with significant decreases in IL-1β, COX-2, STAT3, and NF-κB. Combined together with the changes of stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1), thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), and IL-10 known as biomarkers reflecting stem cell activities at 48 weeks after H. pylori, PD-MSCs among MSCs afforded the best rejuvenating action against H. pylori-associated CAG via additional actions of efferocytosis, autophagy, and anti-apoptosis at 24 weeks. In conclusion, MSCs, especially PD-MSCs, exerted rejuvenating actions against H. pylori-associated CAG via anti-mutagenesis of IL-10, CD-36, ATG5 and cancer suppressive influences of STC-1, TSP-1, and 15-PGDH.
Quercetin, a type of flavonoid, is believed to reduce age-related cognitive decline. To elucidate its potential function, we carried out a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative clinical trial involving 24-week continuous intake of quercetin-rich onion compared to quercetin-free onion as a placebo. Seventy healthy Japanese individuals (aged 60 to 79 years old) were enrolled in this study. We examined the effect of quercetin-rich onion (the active test food) on cognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination, Cognitive Assessment for Dementia iPad version, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory Nursing Home version. The Mini-Mental State Examination scores were significantly improved in the active test food group (daily quercetin intake, 50 mg as aglycone equivalent) compared to the placebo food group after 24 weeks. On the Cognitive Assessment for Dementia iPad version for emotional function evaluation, we found that the scores of the active test food group were significantly improved, suggesting that quercetin prevents cognitive decline by improving depressive symptoms and elevating motivation. On the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Nursing Home version, we found significant effects on reducing the burden on study partners. Taking all the data together, we concluded that 24-week continuous intake of quercetin-rich onion reduces age-related cognitive decline, possibly by improving emotional conditions. Clinical trial register and their clinical registration number: This study was registered with UMIN (approval number UMIN000036276, 5 April 2019).
In this study, the level of cell damage were analyzed immunohistochemically to clarify the association between nodular gastritis and undifferentiated gastric cancer. Thirty patients of nodular gastritis were enrolled as the nodular gastritis group. Thirty patients of non-nodular gastritis were enrolled as the control group. They were evaluated according to the updated Sydney system and used for immunohistochemical staining (p53, Ki-67, E-cadherin, and 8-OHdG). The scores based on the updated Sydney system were significantly higher in the nodular group than in the non-nodular group for histologically assessed inflammation and activity in the gastric corpus (1.91 ± 0.77 vs 1.58 ± 0.60, p = 0.049, 0.83 ± 0.81 vs 0.44 ± 0.64, p = 0.032). On immunostaining, the detection of E-cadherin was lower in the nodular group for both the antrum (1.0 ± 0.62 vs 1.47 ± 0.85, p = 0.047) and the corpus (1.16 ± 0.81 vs 1.48 ± 0.71, p = 0.043) and the p53 labeling index of the gastric corpus was higher in the nodular group than in the non-nodular group (3.06 ± 1.94 vs 2.03 ± 1.99, p = 0.015). Nodular gastritis showed significant severe inflammation and immunohistochemical cell damage compared with non-nodular gastritis. These findings may play an important role in the oncogenesis of undifferentiated gastric cancer in nodular gastritis.
Since there were no available data about colonic diverticular bleeding in extremely elderly patients (>80 years old) treated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), we tried to determine clinical characteristics in those with colonic diverticular bleeding taking DOACs and to compare clinical outcomes of those in DOAC-treated to those in warfarin-treated . We enrolled DOAC-treated (n = 20) and warfarin-treated (n = 23) extremely elderly patients with diverticular bleeding diagnosed by colonoscopy. We performed a retrospective review of patients’ medical charts and endoscopic findings. We classified colonic diverticular bleeding based on endoscopic features due to modified previous study following three groups, type A (active bleeding), type B (non-active bleeding) and type C (bleeding suspected). Clinical outcomes such as number of recurrent bleeding, thrombotic events and mortality were estimated. There were no differences in endoscopical features and clinical characteristics between patients treated with DOAC and warfarin therapy. However, the number of recurrent bleeding, frequency of required blood transfusions and units of blood transfusion in warfarin-treated patients were significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to those in DOAC-treated groups. In addition, mortality and thrombotic events did not differ between DOAC- and warfarin-treated patients. Clinical outcomes suggest that DOACs can be recommended for extremely elderly patients with colonic diverticular disease.