Currently, the advancement in non-thermal atmospheric plasma technology enables plasma treatments on some heat-sensitive targets, including biological substances, without unspecific damage caused by thermal effect. The significant effects of non-thermal atmospheric plasma modulating biological events have been demonstrated by considerable studies. Protein, one of the most important biomolecules, participates in the majority of the life-sustaining activities in all organisms, whose functions are derived from the diverse biochemical properties of amino acid compositions and four-tiered protein structure hierarchy. Therefore, the knowledge of how non-thermal atmospheric plasma affects protein greatly benefits the understanding and application of the non-thermal atmospheric plasma’s effect in biological area. In this review, we summarize recent research progress on the effects of non-thermal atmospheric plasma, particularly its reactive species, on biochemical and biophysical characteristics of proteins at different structural levels that leads to their functional changes. Moreover, the physiological effects of non-thermal atmospheric plasma at cellular or organism level driven by the manipulations on protein and their relative application prospects are reviewed. Despite the exceptional application potential, the exploration of the non-thermal atmospheric plasma’s effect on protein still confronts with difficulties due to the limited knowledge of the underlying mechanisms and the complexity of non-thermal atmospheric plasma operation systems, which requires further studies and standardization of non-thermal atmospheric plasma treatments.
Landiolol, a highly cardioselective ultra-short-acting β1-blocker, prevents perioperative atrial fibrillation associated with systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. We evaluated the direct scavenging activity of landiolol against multiple free radical species. Nine free radical species (hydroxyl, superoxide anion, ascorbyl, tert-butyl peroxyl, tert-butoxyl, singlet oxygen, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide, and tyrosyl radicals) were directly quantified using an X-band ESR spectrometer with the spin-trapping method. IC50 and reaction rate constants were estimated from the dose-response curve for each free radical. Landiolol scavenged six of the free radical species examined: hydroxyl radical (IC50 = 0.76 mM, klandiolol = 1.4 × 1010 M−1 s−1, p<0.001), superoxide anion (58 mM, 2.1 M−1 s−1, p = 0.044), tert-butoxyl radical (4.3 mM, klandiolol/kCYPMPO = 0.77, p<0.001), ascorbyl free radical (0.31 mM, p<0.001), singlet oxygen (0.69 mM, klandiolol/k4-OH TEMP = 2.9, p<0.001), and nitric oxide (15 mM, 1.7 × 10 M−1 s−1, p<0.001). This study is the first to report that landiolol dose-dependently scavenges multiple free radical species with different reaction rate constants. These results indicate the potential clinical application of landiolol as an antioxidative and anti-inflammatory agent in addition to its present clinical use as an anti-arrhythmic agent.
Nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species regulate bone remodeling, which occurs via bone formation and resorption by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Recently, we found that 8-nitro-cGMP, a second messenger of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species, promotes osteoclastogenesis. Here, we investigated the formation and function of 8-nitro-cGMP in osteoblasts. Mouse calvarial osteoblasts were found to produce 8-nitro-cGMP, which was augmented by tumor necrosis factor-α (10 ng/ml) and interleukin-1β (1 ng/ml). These cytokines suppressed osteoblastic differentiation in a NO synthase activity-dependent manner. Exogenous 8-nitro-cGMP (30 μmol/L) suppressed expression of osteoblastic phenotypes, including mineralization, in clear contrast to the enhancement of mineralization by osteoblasts induced by 8-bromo-cGMP, a cell membrane-permeable analog of cGMP. It is known that reactive sulfur species denitrates and degrades 8-nitro-cGMP. Mitochondrial cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase plays a crucial role in the endogenous production of RSS. The expression of osteoblastic phenotypes was suppressed by not only exogenous 8-nitro-cGMP but also by silencing of the Cars2 gene, indicating a role of endogenous 8-nitro-cGMP in suppressing the expression of osteoblastic phenotypes. These results suggest that 8-nitro-cGMP is a negative regulator of osteoblastic differentiation.
Singlet oxygen (1O2) is a selective intermediate reactive oxygen species generated naturally in biological systems by light- and non-light mediated processes. Although 1O2 plays an important role in cell signaling and in maintaining homeostasis, it can be toxic due to its ability to diffuse across considerable distances. Several in vitro studies have investigated the pathways by which 1O2 mediates oxidation of biological molecules and potential pathogenesis. However, understanding how singlet oxygen exerts cell injury through the production of subsequent reactive oxygen species remains unexplored. To study this, we used a hydrophobic endoperoxide as a source of 1O2. Endoperoxides are reagents that quantitatively generate singlet oxygen in solution at 35°C by thermal decomposition. Our chemiluminescence and cell viability assay data revealed that 1O2 stimulated a secondary intracellular reactive oxygen species production in a very short time. To determine the source of these reactive oxygen species with endoperoxide exposure, cells were treated with inhibitors targeting NADPH oxidases and platelet activating factor receptors. Our results showed that addition of the platelet activating factor receptor antagonist, Apafant (WEB2086), alleviated cell injury and hydrogen peroxide levels following endoperoxide stimulation. Furthermore, intracellular calcium assay data demonstrated a potential calcium sensitive production of intracellular reactive oxygen species.
Acetic acid is a major component of vinegar and is reported to have beneficial health effects. Notably, it causes oxidative stress and enhances the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in gastric cancer cells. ROS play important roles in cellular signal transduction, resulting in the regulation of protein expression and apoptosis. We previously reported that ROS upregulate heme carrier protein 1 (HCP1). Moreover, ROS increase the cellular uptake of porphyrins, which are precursors of heme and substrates for uptake by HCP1. Therefore, we hypothesized that photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer treatment using laser irradiation and photosensitizers, such as porphyrin, is enhanced via ROS produced by acetic acid. Herein, we used the rat gastric mucosal cells, RGM1, its cancer-like mutated cells, RGK1, and a manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)-overexpressing RGK cell line, RGK-MnSOD. We confirmed that cancer-specific cellular uptake of porphyrin is increased upon acetic acid treatment and enhances the PDT cytotoxicity in RGK-1, not in RGM-1 and RGK-MnSOD. We believe that this occurs because of the overproduction of ROS and subsequent upregulation of HCP1 in cancerous cells. In conclusion, acetic acid can elevate the effect of PDT by inducing cancer-specific HCP1 expression via ROS production.
Recently, we reported that uric acid and salicylic acid are photosensitizers of the reaction of nucleosides with UV light via radical formation and energy transfer, respectively. In the present study, effects of 45 biologically relevant compounds on nucleoside reactions photosensitized by uric acid and salicylic acid were examined. When a mixed solution of 2'-deoxycytidine, 2'-deoxyguanosine, thymidine, and 2'-deoxyadenosine with uric acid was irradiated with UV light of a wavelength longer than 300 nm, all the nucleosides decreased. The addition of antioxidants suppressed the consumption of nucleosides. When the UV reaction of nucleosides was conducted with salicylic acid, thymidine decreased almost exclusively. Several antioxidants such as ascorbates, thiols, catecholamines, trans-2-hexen-1-ol, penicillin G, and NaHSO3 enhanced the consumption of thymidine, although the other antioxidants suppressed it. The results suggest that antioxidants may be beneficial to protect against DNA damage by photosensitization via radical formation, but that several of them may be detrimental as they facilitate DNA damage by photosensitization via energy transfer.
Obesity appears to be a major contributing factor for many health problems. Effective treatments for reducing weight gain, other than caloric restriction and exercise, are limited. The consumption of sugars is a major factor in the development of obesity in part by stimulating the transcription factor, carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP), a process that is driven by de novo lipogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that inhibiting the action of ChREBP would be a promising strategy for alleviating these diseases. Using ChREBP deficient mice, the effect of a high intake of sucrose on body weight and blood glucose levels were investigated. Unlike wild type mice, ChREBP deficient mice did not gain much weight and their blood glucose and cholesterol levels remained relatively constant. In tracing it’s cause, we found that the levels of expression of sucrase, an enzyme that digests sucrose, and both Glut2 and Glut5, a transporter of glucose and fructose, were not induced by feeding a high sucrose diet in the small intestine of ChREBP deficient mice. Our findings suggest that the inhibition of ChREBP could suppress weight gain even on a high sucrose diet.
Active ingredients in the natural products have been considered to be used for alleviating the symptoms of ulcerative colitis, hence the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LP) and capsaicin on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats were investigated. Rats were grouped into normal, DSS induced colitis, and colitis treated with 100 mg LP/kg body weight, 12 mg capsaicin/kg body weight, or combined 50 mg LP/kg body weight and 6 mg capsaicin/kg body weight. Treatment with LP or capsaicin was orally fed by gavage for 4 weeks, and 5% DSS was fed via drinking water for 6 days during week 3. Colon tissue and cecum content were collected for analysis. Treatments with LP and/or capsaicin ameliorated disease activity index scores, severity of colon distortion, and shrinkage of colon length. LP and capsaicin decreased colonic pro-inflammatory cytokine (IFN-γ, IL-17A, and IL-22) levels. Cecal microbiota in colitis rats were enriched with the genus Turicibacter and Lachnospira. The relative abundance of genus Ruminiclostridium_9 and Ruminoclostridium_1 was increased by LP and capsaicin treatment, respectively. Pretreatment with LP or capsaicin inhibits the severity of colonic damage in rats with DSS-induced colitis via anti-inflammation and modulation of colonic microbiota.
The relationship between folic acid and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) is controversial. This study aims to explore the effect of different doses of folic acid supplementation on SAH levels in hypertensive patients and the modification of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism. A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted. Hypertensive patients aged 45–75 years without a history of stroke and cardiovascular disease were selected, who were randomly assigned to one of 8 dose groups. This trial has been registered with Trial Number: ChiCTR1800016135. In the total population, folic acid supplementation of 0.4–2.0 mg/day had no effect on SAH level (β = 0.47, 95% CI: −0.86–1.79, p = 0.491), while folic acid supplementation of 2.4 mg/day significantly increased SAH level (β = 1.93, 95% CI: 0.22–3.64, p = 0.027). Stratified analysis found that MTHFR C677T genotype CC supplemented with 2.4 mg/day folic acid had no effect on SAH level (β = 0.30, 95% CI: −2.74–3.34, p = 0.847), while CT and TT genotype supplemented with 2.4 mg/day folic acid showed a significant increase in SAH level (CT: β = 2.98, 95% CI: 0.34–5.62, p = 0.027; TT: β = 3.00, 95% CI: −0.51–6.51, p = 0.095; CT combined with TT: β = 2.99, 95% CI: 0.90–5.09, p = 0.005). In conclusion, supplementation of 2.4 mg/day folic acid can lead to increased SAH levels, especially in MTHFR C677T genotype CT and TT.
The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has decreased during several decades due to improvements in the sanitary environment in Japan. Consequently, a relative increase in the incidence of H. pylori-uninfected gastric cancer is expected. We analyzed the trends in H. pylori-uninfected gastric cancer. Two hundred fifty-eight patients with gastric cancer were retrospectively analyzed. The study was divided into four periods: 2008–2011 (first period), 2012–2014 (second period), 2015–2017 (third period), and 2018–2021 (fourth period). The status of H. pylori infection was divided into four categories: uninfected, successful eradication, spontaneous eradication, and persistent infection. Gastric mucosal atrophy was divided into six grades according to the Kimura–Takemoto classification. The proportion of H. pylori infections significantly changed over the study period (p = 0.007). In particular, the rate of H. pylori-uninfected gastric cancer tended to increase over time (0%, 2.9%, 4.9%, and 13.4% in the first, second, third, and fourth periods, respectively; p = 0.0013). The rate of no atrophy (C-0) in gastric cancer tended to increase over time (0%, 2.9%, 4.9%, and 11.0% in the first, second, third, and fourth periods, respectively; p = 0.0046). In conclusion, the rate of H. pylori-uninfected gastric cancer without gastric atrophy tended to increase over time.
Mesalamine is a key drug in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) for both induction and maintenance therapy. On the other hand, it is known that there are some cases of mesalamine intolerance that are difficult to distinguish from symptoms due to aggravation of UC. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical characteristic of mesalamine intolerance in UC. A retrospective, observational study was conducted. We enrolled 31 patients who were diagnosed as mesalamine intolerance between April 2015 to March 2020. We examined clinical features, time to onset, drug types of mesalamine, DLST positive rate, colonoscopy findings, disease activity, and clinical course after diagnosis. The average dose of mesalamine was 3.69 g and DLST-positive was 57.1%. Within the first 2 weeks from the start of mesalamine, 51.6% showed symptoms of intolerance. The serum CRP level was relatively high at ≥10.0 mg/dl in 53.6% of the cases. There was no difference in clinical background, symptoms, or laboratory findings between patients with DLST-positive and negative. In this study, we clarified the clinical characteristics of mesalamine intolerant patients, and found no difference in the clinical background or success rate of desensitization therapy between positive and negative DLST cases.
Diarrhea is one of the most common complications associated with enteral nutrition in hospitalized patients. Oligomeric enteral nutrition has been considered to reduce the incidence of diarrhea. We herein introduced and examined the effects of a specific oligomeric enteral nutrition with the low-molecular-weight whey peptides, Peptino® in critically ill patients with refractory diarrhea or at high risk of mesenteric ischemia. A retrospective study of a consecutive case series was conducted. Patients were divided into two groups: enteral nutrition products were switched to Peptino® (switching group) and Peptino® was the initial enteral nutrition product (first initiation group). Sixty-eight patients were administered Peptino® in the ICU. Diarrhea occurred in 28.3% of patients in the switching group and 13.3% in the first initiation group. EN failure with gastrointestinal intolerance was observed in 6 patients (8.8%). Diarrhea resolved in 29 out of the 35 patients (82.9%) with diarrhea prior to the switch to Peptino®. Diarrhea cessation within 24 h of the initiation of Peptino® was achieved in 11 patients (31.4%) and within 24–48 h in 12 (34.3%). Mesenteric ischemia was not detected in any patients. In conclusion, Peptino® may be effective against diarrhea and gastrointestinal intolerance in critical care nutrition.