2014 Volume 63 Issue 5 Pages 290-294
Physiological environments are severe corrosive conditions which allow the metallic biomaterials to be oxidized by the surroundings including the cell activities. Corrosion reactions in biological conditions and their effects on cellular responses including immunological responses are reviewed. On the other hand, metal ions play essential roles in cellular activities by regulating the gene expression, enzyme activities and also the intracellular signaling pathways. Cellular activities mediated by metal ions are briefly reviewed. Finally, the hierarchical anisotropic architecture of bone is introduced. Bone tissue can realize its mechanical function because of the anisotropic microstructure which is derived from cellular activities in response to the physical and chemical environment; the establishment of biomaterials which realize the appropriate anisotropy of regenerated bone is imperative for the medical innovation which enables the functional tissue regeneration.