1993 Volume 42 Issue 2 Pages 99-106
Both the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and the atomic force microscope (AFM) were developed by Binnig group. These microscopes have already become very popular to every field of scientists. Because these microscope can be used not only in vacuum but also in air and in aqueous solution. These microscopes enable the real time observation of the reaction in atomic scale. In this paper, the principle of these microscopes and the examples of measurement are introduced. The various functions of these microscopes, such as nano-fabrication, nano-processing, tunneling spectroscopy and etc., are also shown. The techniques of STM measurement in aqueous solution are shown in detail based on author's experience.