認知科学
Online ISSN : 1881-5995
Print ISSN : 1341-7924
ISSN-L : 1341-7924
特集-フィールドに出た認知科学
フィールドにおける語り分析のための身体の空間陣形
科学コミュニケーターの展示物解説行動における立ち位置の分析
牧野 遼作古山 宣洋坊農 真弓
著者情報
ジャーナル フリー

2015 年 22 巻 1 号 p. 53-68

詳細
抄録

This study addresses how environments for specialists reciting a narrative are estab-
lished when they (e.g., science communicators) need to give an explanation to non-
specialists (e.g., visitors). To analyze the videotaped data, we employed the notion
of spatial-orientation behavior (proposed by Adam Kendon). Spatial orientation com-
prises two formation types: F-formation and H-formation. The F-formation is when
the participants stand in an O-space, and everyone has an equal right to speak. The
H-formation includes head position as a factor of the study; where, a single participant
faces the rest of the participants that are typically lined-up in a row. The single par-
ticipant has more rights to speak than the rest. This study focuses on the H-formation
with the hypothesis that it is one way to signal readiness to start a narrative, i.e.,
establishes the environment to recite a narrative. Two case studies are provided in
this study. Case Study I gives an example of the H-formation, wherein the specialist
exerts a privileged right to talk to the novices. Case Study II illustrates an example
of the F-formation, with the specialist ending up with starting the narrative to the
novices, which acts as an excuse, as the specialist does not have the privileged right to
talk to the novices. For one thing, the reciting of the narrative in this example only
started as a response to a question from one of the novices. Additionally, the narrative
including with the contraction structures by gestures giving novice the chance to notice
the answer for his/her question. The results demonstrate how the type of formation
relates to the construction and presentation of the specialist’s narrative. The results of
the two analyses demonstrate that the formation consisted of the two types, and that
participants use H-formation as a resource for establishing the environment for reciting
the narrative.

著者関連情報
© 2015 日本認知科学会
前の記事 次の記事
feedback
Top