The aim of this study was to examine the association of gingival recession and cervical abrasion with age, toothbrushing, and cigarette smoking. One hundred and fifty-seven male employees of a transportation company in Osaka Prefecture (22-63yr of age, average 40.1 years) participated in this study. The prevalence of gingival recession and cervical abrasion was 76% and 60%, respectively. The mean number of surfaces with recession and abrasion were 6.8 and 3.0, respectively. The prevalence rate and the mean number of surfaces in each disease increased with age. The prevalence rate in subjects using the horizontal brushing technique was high in both diseases. Brushing technique was significantly associated with prevalence of both diseases (p<0.05). The mean number of surfaces with recession in subjects who brush with the horizontal technique was significantly higher than those who use varying methods (p<0.05). According to analyses using Hayashi's quantification methods, age showed the strongest association with prevalence rate and number of surfaces in both diseases among the items employed in this study. On each occasion, brushing frequency or brushing technique showed stronger association than amount of dentifrice and bristle stiffness. Cigarette smoking also showed a relatively strong correlation with gingival recession. However, the association between cigarette smoking and cervical abrasion was very weak. These results indicate that gingival recession and cervical abrasion are associated with age and brushing habits such as brushing frequency and technique, and suggest that gingival recession is independently linked to cigarette smoking.