Journal of Epidemiology
Online ISSN : 1349-9092
Print ISSN : 0917-5040
ISSN-L : 0917-5040
Original Article
Dietary Antioxidant Micronutrients and All-Cause Mortality: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk
Enbo MaHiroyasu IsoKazumasa YamagishiMasahiko AndoKenji WakaiAkiko Tamakoshi
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2018 Volume 28 Issue 9 Pages 388-396


Background: Oxidative stress, the imbalance between pro- and antioxidants, has been implicated in the etiology and pathophysiology of the incidence and mortality of many diseases. We aim to investigate the relations of dietary intakes of vitamin C and E and main carotenoids with all-cause mortality in Japanese men and women.

Methods: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk had 22,795 men and 35,539 women, aged 40–79 years at baseline (1988–1990), who completed a valid food frequency questionnaire and were followed up to the end of 2009.

Results: There were 6,179 deaths in men and 5,355 deaths in women during the median follow-up of 18.9 years for men and 19.4 years for women. Multivariate hazard ratios for the highest versus lowest quintile intakes in women were 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76–0.90; P for trend < 0.0001) for vitamin C, 0.85 (95% CI, 0.78–0.93; P for trend < 0.0001) for vitamin E, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.81–0.96; P for trend = 0.0006) for β-carotene, and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.82–0.98; P for trend = 0.0002) for β-cryptoxanthin. The joint effect of any two of these highly correlated micronutrients showed significant 12–17% reductions in risk in the high-intake group compared with the low-intake group in women. These significant associations were also observed in the highest quintile intakes of vitamin C, vitamin E, and β-carotene in female non-smokers but were not observed in female smokers, male smokers, and non-smokers.

Conclusions: Higher dietary intakes of antioxidant vitamins may reduce the risk of all-cause mortality in middle-aged Japanese women, especially female non-smokers.

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© 2018 Enbo Ma et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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