2022 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 237-243
Background: Both weight loss and cognitive impairment are common in late-life, but it remains unknown whether weight change is associated with risk of incident dementia among elderly Japanese. Our study aimed to investigate the association between long-term weight change since midlife and risk of incident disabling dementia using a community-based cohort study of elderly Japanese.
Methods: In 2006, we conducted a cohort study of 6,672 disability-free Japanese adults aged ≥65 years. In both 1994 and 2006, the participants reported their weight using a self-reported questionnaire. Based on weight obtained at these two time points, participants were classified into: stable weight (−1.4 to +1.4 kg), weight gain (≥+1.5 kg), and weight loss of −2.4 to −1.5 kg, −3.4 to −2.5 kg, −4.4 to −3.5 kg, −5.4 to −4.5 kg, and ≥−5.5 kg. Incident disabling dementia was retrieved from the public Long-term Care Insurance database. Participants were followed-up for 5.7 years (between April 2007 and November 2012). Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident disabling dementia.
Results: During 32,865 person-years of follow-up, 564 participants were ascertained as having incident disabling dementia. Compared with stable weight, the multivariable-adjusted HRs were 0.97 (95% CI, 0.70–1.34) for weight loss of −2.4 to −1.5 kg, 0.98 (95% CI, 0.70–1.38) for −3.4 to −2.5 kg, 1.28 (95% CI, 0.91–1.81) for −4.4 to −3.5 kg, 1.27 (95% CI, 0.92–1.77) for −5.4 to −4.5 kg, and 1.64 (95% CI, 1.29–2.09) for ≥−5.5 kg.
Conclusion: Our study suggested that a ≥−3.5 kg weight loss over 12 years might be associated with higher risk of incident disabling dementia among elderly Japanese.