Background: Causal evidence of circulating lipids especially the remnant cholesterol with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is lacking. This research aimed to explore the causal roles of extensive lipid traits especially the remnant lipids in CVD.
Methods: Two-sample Mendelian randomization (TSMR) analysis was performed based on large-scale meta-analysis datasets in European ancestry. The causal effect of 15 circulating lipid profiles including 6 conventional lipids and 9 remnant lipids on coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic stroke (IS), as well as the subtypes, was assessed.
Results: Apolipoprotein B (Apo B), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) were still important risk factors for CHD and myocardial infarction (MI) but not for IS. Apo B is the strongest which increased the CHD and MI risk by 44% and 41%, respectively. The odds ratios (ORs) of total TG on CHD and MI were 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–1.38) and 1.24 (95% CI, 1.11–1.38), respectively. A one standard deviation difference increased TG in medium very-low-density lipoproteins (M.VLDL.TG), TG in small VLDL (S.VLDL.TG), TG in very small VLDL (XS.VLDL.TG), TG in intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL.TG), TG in very large HDL (XL.HDL.TG), and TG in small HDL (S.HDL.TG) particles also robustly increased the risk of CHD and MI by 9–28% and 9–27%, respectively. TG in very/extremely large VLDL (XXL.VLDL.TG and XL.VLDL.TG) were insignificant or even negatively associated with CHD (in multivariable TSMR), and negatively associated with IS as well.
Conclusion: The remnant lipids presented heterogeneity and two-sided effects for the risk of CHD and IS that may partially rely on the particle size. The findings suggested that the remnant lipids were required to be intervened according to specific components. This research confirms the importance of remnant lipids and provides causal evidence for potential targets for intervention.
Background: In 2012, the Korean National Health Insurance extended its coverage to include denture services for older adults. We examined whether the new policy resulted in improved chewing ability in the eligible population.
Methods: We used interrupted time-series (ITS) analysis, a quasi-experimental design, to analyze the effect of the policy. We used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted from 2007 to 2016–2018. The study population consisted of two groups: the treatment group, aged 65 years or older and eligible for the dental insurance benefit; and the control group, those younger than 65 years and ineligible. The main evaluated outcome was self-reported chewing difficulty.
Results: The ITS analysis showed that chewing difficulty decreased annually by 0.93% (95% CI, −1.30 to −0.55%) and 0.38% (95% CI, −0.59 to −0.16%) after the policy extension in the older than 65 and younger than 65 groups, respectively. However, we could not conclude that the insurance extension affected chewing difficulty because there was a decrease in the control group as well.
Conclusion: Chewing ability improved in both older and younger adults regardless of dental insurance coverage for older adults. Other exogenous factors probably led to the improvements in chewing ability as well as dental insurance benefits.
Background: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) are enzymes associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence. However, limited information is available regarding the association of liver enzymes and DM consistently present in obese and non-obese individuals. We examined whether the combination of ALT and GGT enzymes is associated with the prevalence of DM, regardless of obesity, in a general Japanese population.
Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 62,786 participants aged ≥20 years who lived in Miyagi and Iwate, Japan. We divided all the participants into eight groups according to the ALT level (low: <30 IU/L and high: ≥30 IU/L), GGT level (low: <50 IU/L and high: ≥50 IU/L), and the presence of obesity. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multivariable logistic regression analysis, adjusting for potential confounders, to determine associations of the combination of ALT and GGT levels and obesity with DM prevalence.
Results: Overall, 6,008 participants (9.6%) had DM. Compared to non-obese individuals with low ALT and GGT levels, the participants with high ALT and GGT levels had high ORs for DM in both obese (OR 4.06; 95% CI, 3.61–4.56) and non-obese groups (OR 2.19; 95% CI, 1.89–2.52). The obese group had high ORs for DM, even at low ALT and GGT levels.
Conclusion: High ALT and GGT levels are associated with DM prevalence in obese and non-obese participants. This finding suggests that correcting ALT and GGT levels and controlling obesity are important for the prevention of DM.
Background: The Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS) is a nationwide birth cohort study investigating environmental effects on children’s health and development. A Sub-Cohort Study has begun, conducting extended exposure and outcome measurements by targeting a subgroup randomly selected from the JECS Main Study. We report the Sub-Cohort Study methodology and participants’ baseline profiles.
Methods: Of 100,148 children in the JECS Main Study, children born after April 1, 2013 who met eligibility criteria ( all questionnaire and medical record data from children and their mothers collected from the first trimester to 6 months of age,  biospecimens [except umbilical cord blood] from children and their mothers collected at first to second/third trimester and delivery) were randomly selected for each Regional Centre at regular intervals. Face-to-face assessment of neuropsychiatric development, body measurement, paediatrician’s examination, blood/urine collection for clinical testing and chemical analysis, and home visits (ambient and indoor air measurement and dust collection) are conducted. Participants are followed up at 1.5 and 3 years old for home visits, and 2, 4, 6, and 8 years old for developmental/medical examination. The details of protocols after age 10 are under discussion.
Results: Of 10,302 selected children, 5,017 participated. The profiles of the participating mothers, fathers and children did not substantially differ between the Main Study and Sub-Cohort Study.
Conclusion: The JECS Sub-Cohort Study offers a platform for investigating associations between environmental exposure and outcomes.
Background: Both weight loss and cognitive impairment are common in late-life, but it remains unknown whether weight change is associated with risk of incident dementia among elderly Japanese. Our study aimed to investigate the association between long-term weight change since midlife and risk of incident disabling dementia using a community-based cohort study of elderly Japanese.
Methods: In 2006, we conducted a cohort study of 6,672 disability-free Japanese adults aged ≥65 years. In both 1994 and 2006, the participants reported their weight using a self-reported questionnaire. Based on weight obtained at these two time points, participants were classified into: stable weight (−1.4 to +1.4 kg), weight gain (≥+1.5 kg), and weight loss of −2.4 to −1.5 kg, −3.4 to −2.5 kg, −4.4 to −3.5 kg, −5.4 to −4.5 kg, and ≥−5.5 kg. Incident disabling dementia was retrieved from the public Long-term Care Insurance database. Participants were followed-up for 5.7 years (between April 2007 and November 2012). Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident disabling dementia.
Results: During 32,865 person-years of follow-up, 564 participants were ascertained as having incident disabling dementia. Compared with stable weight, the multivariable-adjusted HRs were 0.97 (95% CI, 0.70–1.34) for weight loss of −2.4 to −1.5 kg, 0.98 (95% CI, 0.70–1.38) for −3.4 to −2.5 kg, 1.28 (95% CI, 0.91–1.81) for −4.4 to −3.5 kg, 1.27 (95% CI, 0.92–1.77) for −5.4 to −4.5 kg, and 1.64 (95% CI, 1.29–2.09) for ≥−5.5 kg.
Conclusion: Our study suggested that a ≥−3.5 kg weight loss over 12 years might be associated with higher risk of incident disabling dementia among elderly Japanese.