Journal of Epidemiology
Online ISSN : 1349-9092
Print ISSN : 0917-5040
Contribution of Diabetes to the Incidence and Prevalence of Comorbid Conditions (Cancer, Periodontal Disease, Fracture, Impaired Cognitive Function, and Depression): A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies in Japanese Populations
Hirokazu TanakaNoriko Ihana-SugiyamaTakehiro SugiyamaMitsuru Ohsugi
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JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS Advance online publication

Article ID: JE20170155


Background: Several epidemiological studies have determined the relationship between diabetes and the incidence and/or prevalence of recently identified comorbid conditions (cancer, periodontal disease, fracture, cognitive impairment, and depression). These relationships may vary by country or race/ethnicity. We aimed to systematically review studies in this field conducted with the Japanese population because such a review in the Japanese population has never been undertaken.

Methods: We conducted systematic literature searches in PubMed and Ichushi-Web databases for studies published until December 2016. Studies comparing the incidence and/or prevalence of the comorbidities among the Japanese population were included. The studies were classified as integrated analyses, cohort studies, case-control studies, or cross-sectional studies.

Results: We identified 33 studies (cancer: 17, periodontal disease: 5, fracture: 5, cognitive impairment: 4, and depression: 2). Although several cohort studies and meta-analyses had assessed the development of cancer in diabetes, there was scant epidemiological evidence for the other conditions. Indeed, only one cohort study each had been conducted for periodontal disease, fracture, and cognitive impairment, whereas other evidence was cross-sectional, some of which was induced from baseline characteristic tables of studies designed for other purposes.

Conclusion: In Japan, there is insufficient evidence about the relationship between diabetes and the incidence/prevalence of periodontal disease, fracture, cognitive impairment, and depression. By contrast, several cohort studies and integrated analyses have been conducted for the relationship with cancer. Further studies should be undertaken to estimate the contribution of diabetes on the incidence/prevalence of comorbidities that may be specific to the Japanese population.

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© 2018 Hirokazu Tanaka et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.