2020 Volume 66 Issue 5 Pages 245-255
Thioredoxins (Trxs) and protein-disulfide isomerases (PDIs) are believed to play a pivotal role in ensuring the proper folding of proteins, facilitating appropriate functioning of proteins, and maintaining intracellular redox homeostasis in bacteria. Two thioredoxins (Trxs) and three thiol-disulfide isomerases (PDIs) have been annotated in Corynebacterium glutamicum. However, nothing is known about their functional diversity in the redox regulation of proteins. Thus, we here analyzed the Trx- and PDI-dependent redox shifts of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), insulin, 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB), and several thiol-dependent peroxidases by measuring enzyme activity and thiol status in vitro. We found that the two Trxs and the three PDIs had activities in the cleavage of the disulfidebond, whereas the PDIs had a lower efficiency than the two Trxs. Trx2 could activate thiol-dependent peroxidases with an efficiency comparable with that of Trx1, but the PDIs were inefficient. The redox-active Cys-X-X-Cys motif harbored in both Trxs and PDIs was essential to supply efficiently the donor of reducing equivalents for protein disulfides. In addition, stress-responsive extracytoplasmic function (ECF)-sigma factor H (SigH)-dependent Trxs and PDIs expressions were observed. These results contributed importantly to our overall understanding of reducing functionality of the Trx and PDI systems, and also highlighted the complexity and plasticity of the intracellular redox network.