2017 Volume 44 Issue 4 Pages 594-599
Objective Excessive caloric intake and a sedentary lifestyle are well-known risk factors for incident diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine if body composition, nutrient intake and daily energy expenditure values had any impact on glucose regulation.
Methods A total of 81 subjects (49 men and 32 women) who underwent anti-aging health checks at Tokai University Tokyo Hospital were enrolled in this study. Body composition was evaluated using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQg) was used to estimate nutrient intake and energy expenditure values.
Results The subjects were not obese on average in BMI. Percentage of body fat showed a significantly positive correlation with fasting glucose in both men and women. The relationship between energy intake and fasting glucose remained inconclusive in this study. There was a significantly negative correlation between fasting glucose and daily energy expenditure in men, and resting energy expenditure in women, but not energy expenditure of exercise in both men and women.
Conclusion The present study shows that subclinical glucose dysregulation was associated with decreased energy expenditure other than exercise and increased percentage of body fat, rather than excessive energy intake and/or decreased physical activity in the anti-aging checkup examinees. We strongly emphasize the importance of evaluating body composition to detect early signs of metabolic changes, because subjects with sarcopenic obesity are at high risk of developing lifestyle-related diseases including type 2 diabetes.