Objective Uric acid (UA) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses are associated with inflammation, coronary heart disease, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the relation between UA and HDL subclasses is not well understood.
Methods Subjects included 848 Japanese men not taking medication for hyperuricemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, or chronic renal disease; they underwent an annual health examination that included HDL subclass analyses.
Results When subjects were stratified by HDL2-C or HDL3-C levels, UA level decreased as HDL2-C level increased, while UA levels increased as HDL3-C levels increased. In a multiple linear regression analysis, age, waist circumference (WC), diastolic blood pressure (BP), logarithmic transformed triglyceride ln(TG) and HDL3 cholesterol (HDL3-C), were associated with UA level. In a multiple logistic regression analysis for upper tertile of UA (≥ 6.8 mg/dL), WC, diastolic BP, ln(TG), HDL2-C and HDL3-C were associated. Since this analysis indicated that MetS components were determinants of UA level along with HDL-C subclass, possible synergistic effects of HDL-C subclass and MetS components to determine UA level were assessed. A combination of the number of MetS components and stratification of HDL3-C affected UA levels; the mean UA level increased in subjects with increased MetS components and HDL3-C level.
Conclusion HDL-C subclasses were associated with UA level; particularly, a high HDL3-C level was associated with high UA level related to MetS in Japanese men.
This study was performed with subjects who received active support including specific health guidance, with the aim of clarifying the effects of changes in lifestyle on weight loss. The results are based on the answers that they provided in standard questionnaires before and after the support intervention. The subjects included 4,318 males and 810 females at 155 facilities who were categorized as requiring active support based on the results of special health check-up from April 2011 to March 2013, and completed the health guidance. In the study, a weight loss of 3% or more was considered as a positive outcome. The percentage of subjects with a weight loss of 3% or higher was 32.3% and 39.6% in the male and female subjects, respectively. The male and female subjects with a weight loss of 3% or higher accounted for 20% or higher of the subjects who maintained or increased their bad lifestyle habits, and those who maintained or reduced their good lifestyle habits. A reduction in the bad lifestyle habits with the intervention was significantly correlated with a weight loss of 3% or higher. For male subjects, these parameters included “having a snack or midnight meal after dinner” (odds ratio: 2.01, 95% confidence interval: 1.42-2.84), “exercise with light sweating for 30 minutes or longer per day” (1.70, 1.41-2.07), “pace of eating when compared to others” (1.55, 1.23-1.97), “high-risk alcohol drinking” (1.52, 1.06-2.19), and “walking or physical activity for 1 hour or longer per day” (1.32, 1.10-1.58). For female subjects, the parameters were “not having breakfast” (2.56, 1.14-5.73) and “exercise with light sweating for 30 minutes or longer per day” (1.72, 1.15-2.56). In addition, even after adjustment for the factors of age, BMI, smoking, and high-risk alcohol drinking, similar results were obtained. Based on these findings, it was suggested that a certain level of weight loss could be confirmed in the subjects who received active support, and the effects tended to be increased when concrete improvements were made in their lifestyle.