The factors contributing to the declining birthrate in Japan include the declining marriage rate, an increase in the average age of those getting married, economic burden, childcare burden, later child-bearing, and infertility. There is a gender difference in role division, with 70% of unmarried people live with their parents and continue to work while leaving the household chores to their mothers. The loss of these housekeeping services and the increase in the number of irregular workers are factors contributing to the declining marriage rate and the increase in the average age of those getting married. The expansion of the family support policy in Japan from the male breadwinner model to the earner-career model may have been delayed, but it is expected to provide economic benefits as well as actual childcare service benefits in order to reduce the economic and physical burden of childcare for married couples. It is also necessary to provide education in reproductive health to both men and women in schools and workplaces regarding late child-bearing and infertility. Furthermore, it is necessary to evaluate the cost-effectiveness analysis of improvements in fertility and disclose the relevant information in addition to sharing information on medical technology related to pregnancy/childbirth and treatment of diseases. It is urgent to prepare society for natural and healthy pregnancies/childbirths during optimal child-bearing years.