2011 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 413-422
The aim of the present study was to explore the correlation between women's physical education in schools and foot binding in Taiwan during the initial stage of Japanese colonization (1895-1906). Based on historical materials such as Taiwan Nichinichi Shinpo (Taiwan Daily Newspaper), Taiwan Kyoikukai Zasshi (Taiwan Education Magazines), and Taiwan Kyoiku Enkakushi (Taiwan Education Development Magazines), we tried to clarify how Japanese colonists carried out physical education in the period before 1906 when female students still had bound feet. The proportion of women with bound feet was as high as 60%, and this led to practical difficulties with physical education. Because of these difficulties, physical education was replaced by suitable games (including a form of dancing activity; for example, marching play (Kōshin-yūgi) and facial expression play (Hyōjō-yūgi) between 1895 and 1906. The practice of games in physical education was thus firmly established during this period. The second affiliated Kokugo school (Japanese school), as a role-model school in Taiwan, always practiced games and general gymnastics in consideration of foot-binding. Thus, the teaching experience during this time can be viewed as an embryonic period for the general gymnastics that emerged later.