2016 Volume 61 Issue 2 Pages 621-628
The present paper attempts to clarify the meaning of the term ‘tai-iku’ (physical education) in the “principles of physical education” proposed by Heizaburo Takashima (1865-1946), who was a prominent advocate of physical education (P.E.) in the latter part of the Meiji era of Japan. Takashima wrote many books on P.E., which included many examples of the term ‘tai-iku’. Subjects related to P.E. were discussed meaningfully from various angles, but the meaning of the term ‘tai-iku’ (P.E.) itself was not self-evident.
‘Tai-iku’ in Japanese has had many meanings throughout history. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify previous references to ‘tai-iku’ using an empirical approach when reading books on P.E. written in past times, as there is a risk that Takashima's term ‘tai-iku’ may unconsciously conform to our concept of P.E.. The present paper represents the first attempt to define the term.
Our first conclusion was that Takashima's own concept of ‘tai-iku’ should be defined in terms of his “principles of physical education” (1904). Our second was that the definition was a methodological one, by which intellectual and moral education can be brought to perfection, while retaining the previous meaning in the context of the human body. The term ‘tai-iku’ in Takashima's book has these two different meanings.
Some other issues remain to be addressed, such as whether alternative meanings exist in Takashima's books, or whether his books (“principles of physical education” and so on) can be read consistently and coherently.