2019 Volume 17 Pages A1-A8
This paper clarifies the meaning of the term tai-iku (physical education) in the Principles of Physical Education by Heizaburo Takashima (1865-1946), who advocated physical education (PE) in the latter part of Japan's Meiji era. Takashima wrote many books on PE, which included examples of the term tai-iku. PE-related subjects were discussed from various angles, but the meaning of tai-iku was not self-evident. In Japanese, Tai-iku has many meanings throughout history. Therefore, previous references to tai-iku must be clarified through an empirical approach when reading books on PE written in past times, as there is a risk that Takashima's term tai-iku may unconsciously conform to our concept of PE. This paper represents the first attempt to define the term. We concluded that first, Takashima's concept of tai-iku should be defined in terms of his Principles of Physical Education (1904), and second, the definition was methodological, by which intellectual and moral education can be perfected, while retaining the previous meaning in the context of the human body. In Takashima's book, tai-iku has these two meanings. Other issues include whether alternative meanings exist in Takashima's books, or whether these (Principles of Physical Education etc.) can be read consistently and coherently.