2022 年 49 巻 1 号 p. 5-19
Many athletes suffer from yips, which is defined as “a psycho-neuromuscular movement disorder, which affects sports in which fine motor precision skills (Clarke et al., 2015, p. 156).” Yips is one reason for significant performance decrements in sports. Several case studies, surveys, and experimental studies have been conducted to clarify this phenomenon. These studies can increase the understanding of yips and help athletes, coaches, and practitioners improve this problem during practice and competitions. Therefore, we reviewed 62 articles published from 1981 to 2021 reporting assessment, symptoms, and treatments of yips in sports. As a result, we identified four types of assessments: (1) self-assessments, (2) observations by others, (3) kinematic and physiological assessments using motion capture and electromyography, and (4) responding to assessment scales. The studies were also categorized in terms of symptoms, as psychological (e.g., anxiety, attention, and personality) and physio-behavioral (e.g., kinematics, muscular activity, and brain activity). The studies on yips treatment could be classified into imagery techniques, pharmacotherapy, and other psychological skills. Furthermore, specific studies indicated post-traumatic psychological growth through yips experiences. The implications of these studies for future research on yips are discussed based on this review.