Japan Journal of Sport Sociology
Online ISSN : 2185-8691
Print ISSN : 0919-2751
ISSN-L : 0919-2751
“Excuses” Given by Professional Baseball Players in Contract Negotiation
An Exploratory Study of Justification
Haruo Higashimoto
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1994 Volume 2 Pages 95-101


The purpose of this study is to explore “excuses” made by professional baseball players and their team managements in justifying performances and administrative decisions through their contract negotiation. Comments in newspapers were analyzed for specific content analysis.
“Excuses” are made not only after the actions have been made, but sometimes before. The latter is referred to as “vocabularies of motives” (Mills, 1940).
This study investigated the relationship between one of the most prominent baseball players and his team management in his salary negotiation. Typical Japanese values were revealed in reviewing vocabularies used in the press conferences, both on the part of the player and the management.
In summary, there seems to be a “stock” of vocabularies of “excuses” in sport groups, or sub-groups. It is assumed that they are learned and shared by the members and therefore they are specific, both to the sport and the society in which they are played.

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