2014 Volume 60 Issue 4 Pages 358-361
Recently, immune checkpoint blockade with anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 antibodies has the greatest impact on clinical cancer therapy. The rationale for these therapeutic regimens has been established by our advanced knowledge about basic immunology, such as the identification of tumor antigens and the elucidation of self-tolerance mechanisms, and proof-of-concept experiments in animal models. More applications of the immunostimulatory antibodies targeting costimulatory molecules, such as CD40 and CD137, and coinhibitory molecules, such as TIM-3 and VISTA, are now expected. Accumulating evidence shows that these immunostimulatory antibodies can be successfully combined with conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy to improve their efficacy.