Axonal outgrowth after stroke plays an important role in tissue repair and is critical for functional recovery. In the peri-infarct area of a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model, we found that the axons and dendrites that had fallen off in the acute phase of stroke (7 days) were regenerated in the chronic phase of stroke (56 days). In vitro, we showed that phosphatase tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10/Akt/Glycogen synthase kinase 3β signaling is implicated in postischemic axonal regeneration. In a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, oral administration of L-carnitine induced axonal and oligodendrocyte regeneration in the cerebral white matter, resulting in myelin thickening, and it improved cognitive impairment in rats with chronic cerebral ischemia. Recently, it has been shown that exosomes enhanced functional recovery after stroke. Exosome treatment has less tumorigenicity, does not occlude the microvascular system, has low immunogenicity, and does not require a host immune response compared to conventional cell therapy. Several studies demonstrated specific microRNA in exosomes, which regulated signaling pathways related to neurogenesis after stroke. Collectively, there are various mechanisms of axonal regeneration and functional recovery after stroke, and it is expected that new therapeutic agents for stroke with the aim of axonal regeneration will be developed and used in real-world clinical practice in the future.
Objective Alongside non-pharmacological intervention, pharmacotherapy particularly with atypical antipsychotics is assumed to be effective for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD).
Methods This retrospective study investigated the effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapy including antipsychotics in outpatients or inpatients with BPSD.
Results Of all Alzheimer-type dementia (AD) patients with BPSD initiating treatment between March and August 2011, a total of 102 patients available for 12-month follow-up comprised the subjects in this chart review. Of these, 68 (66.7%) continued treatment in the ambulatory or inpatient setting, with their MMSE scores improved from 17.3 ± 3.6 at baseline to 18.3 ± 3.53, 17.9 ± 3.80 and 17.0 ± 4.14 after 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. In contrast, their NPI scores were significantly different from 11.7 ± 11.2 at baseline to 4.86 ± 5.40, 3.56 ± 4.65 and 2.27 ± 3.77 after 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. Of the 36 inpatients available for follow-up, 27 (75%) on concurrent antipsychotics (chlorpromazine [CP] equivalent, 162.2 mg) at baseline remained on concurrent antipsychotics (CP equivalent, 212.5 mg) after 12 months, while, of the 66 outpatients available for follow-up, 13 (19.7%) on concurrent antipsychotics (CP equivalent, 93.4 mg) at baseline remained on concurrent antipsychotics (CP equivalent, 113.0 mg) after 12 months.
Conclusions Study results confirmed the effectiveness and safety of the study treatment in Japanese AD patients with BPSD for up to 12 months. How best to incorporate antipsychotics into the treatment of BPSD in clinical settings lies in the hands of us Japanese clinicians.
Objectives To investigate the effects of interventions provided by a multidisciplinary team consisting of anesthesiologists, dentists, pharmacists, and nurses at a Preoperative Clinic (POC) on postoperative outcomes.
Methods We retrospectively investigated patients who underwent preoperative evaluation at the POC at Juntendo University Hospital between May and July, 2019. Patients were divided into intervention and non-intervention groups according to whether they received intervention(s) at the POC or not. Postoperative outcomes were compared between the groups, before and after propensity score (PS) matching.
Results We investigated 909 patients who completed POC evaluation and underwent surgery. Patients in the intervention group (n = 455 [50.1%]) received at least one intervention delivered, in the order of higher delivery frequencies, by dentists, pharmacists, nurses, and anesthesiologists. Before PS matching, the intervention group was associated with older age, more frequent cardiovascular comorbidities, and higher ASA-PS grades than the non-intervention group, while neither frequencies nor severities of postoperative complications differed between the groups. These outcomes did not differ between 382 PS-matched pairs with comparable risk factors either.
Conclusions Before PS matching, postoperative outcomes did not differ between the groups, although the intervention group was associated with higher risks. These suggested that POC interventions could have improved postoperative outcomes in the higher-risk intervention group to the same level as in the non-intervention group. However, such potential beneficial effects of interventions could not be proven after PS matching. Further studies are required to elucidate effects of POC interventions on postoperative outcomes.
Objectives Tumors invading the tracheobronchial angle or carina have long presented a challenge due to the complexity of airway reconstruction and management; thus, few medical centers have developed experience with this type of surgery. In this report, we review our experience with Sleeve Pneumonectomy (SP) and analyze both operative risks and outcomes.
Materials and Methods A retrospective review identified 34 patients who underwent SP: 19 underwent salvage SP and 15 underwent non-salvage SP. Salvage surgery was performed for recurrent lung cancer after chemoradiotherapy and could be considered if there were no other therapeutic options or in the presence of urgent symptoms, such as hemoptysis, obstructive pneumonia, superior vena cava syndrome, or tracheoesophageal fistula. The perioperative morbidity and oncological outcomes of salvage and non-salvage SP were analyzed.
Results Most cases were of lung cancer, whereas salvage SP included one case of SVC syndrome due to metastasis of colon cancer and one case of hemoptysis due to metastasis of leiomyosarcoma. Complications occurred in 47% of the non-salvage SP cases and 53% of the salvage SP cases. The 30-day mortality rates were zero in the non-salvage cases and 11% in the salvage cases. The 90-day mortality rates were 20% and 16% in the non-salvage and salvage groups, respectively.
Conclusions The salvage of SP after chemoradiotherapy or in the presence of urgent symptoms is feasible. We believe that it can be an option that improves quality of life (QOL) through longer desease-free survival (DFS) and alleviation of symptoms, rather than waiting for tumor growth progression and exacerbation of symptoms.
A 27-year-old man experienced discomfort in his right testis in early September, 2021, and visited the hospital five days later. Physical examination did not detect any abnormalities in the scrotum. However, an ultrasound revealed a tumor in the central part of the right testis, and a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) showed a tumor 2.7cm in diameter with clear boundaries and a marginally smooth surface.
The level of alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, human chorionic gonadotropin-β subunit, and lactate dehydrogenase were within normal limits. A Computed Tomography (CT) scan showed no abnormalities. We can’t rule out the possibility of malignancy, right radical orchiectomy was performed with a diagnosis of right testicular tumor in mid-September 2021.
The macroscopic lesion was 1.5×1.3 cm in size, and no viable tumorous cells were found pathologically. Atypical cells were observed in the seminiferous tubules from the spermatic cord, which were positively stained with immune-histochemical staining CD117 (c-kit), D2-40, and MIB-1 but negatively with alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and human chorionic gonadotropin-β subunit.
The pathological diagnosis was germ cell neoplasia in situ, and no continuity was observed between these cells and bleeding necrosis.
The patient has been followed up for 1 year and 4 months after surgery, with no recurrence or metastasis observed.
Handgrip strength as a biomarker is being studied as a factor in predicting disease onset. However, the effect of improving handgrip strength through physical exercises, such as sports during the developmental period, on disease prevention has yet to be fully elucidated. The Juntendo Fitness Plus (J-Fit Plus) Study is a unique database of anthropometric and physical fitness measurements with over 50 years of accumulated data. It has the potential to explore the effects of sports on the association between handgrip strength and morbidity/mortality. We first outline previous studies on the impact of physical exercise interventions on handgrip strength, separated into adulthood and developmental period. We then introduced a unique effort to investigate the effects of sports using the J-Fit Plus Study database and describe the challenges of finally elucidating the impact of exercise on the association between handgrip strength and health status.
Objectives With increasing multinational research in general medicine, the lack of a standardized policy regarding the order of author bylines can create conflict and misunderstanding due to different practices worldwide.
Methods We examined publicly available data from websites such as Journal Citation Reports and Web of Science, focusing on original articles published in the “Medicine, General, & Internal” category in 2020. Of 169 journals in the “Medicine, General, & Internal” category, we selected the ten countries with the highest number of publications and then examined the position of the corresponding author in the author byline as an indicator of the author in charge since corresponding authors are considered to have contributed the most.
Results The top ten countries with the highest publications are the USA, China, Germany, England, Japan, France, Italy, Canada, India, and Australia. The results demonstrated that the percentage of the second author being the corresponding author was the highest in Japan compared to other countries. This percentage was 25 times higher in Japan than in the USA.
Conclusions Understanding international differences regarding author order would facilitate smoother collaboration.