Juntendo Medical Journal
Online ISSN : 2188-2126
Print ISSN : 2187-9737
ISSN-L : 2187-9737
Current Topics: Current Status and Future Perspective on the Application of Host Defense Peptides to Medicine
Applications of Antimicrobial Peptides Derived from the Defensin of the Rhinoceros Beetle Allomyrina dichotoma
JUN ISHIBASHI
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2016 Volume 62 Issue 2 Pages 112-119

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Abstract

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are produced by multicellular organisms and play an important role in innate immunity. AMPs are considered to be promising candidates for novel antibiotics because the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria has become a serious global health problem. There are many advantages of AMPs over conventional antibiotics, including a broad antibacterial spectrum and unique antibacterial mechanisms. Importantly, microbial resistance to membrane-disruptive AMPs is very unlikely to occur rapidly because changes in the target cell membrane cannot occur within a short period. However, antigenicity, cytotoxicity, stability, and production cost are the main difficulties with the application of AMPs for therapeutic purposes. Therefore, modifications of the original AMPs have been performed to overcome these difficulties.
Here we describe our work on the potential therapeutic applications of AMPs as well as the development of beetle defensin-derived AMPs and their multiple functions and applications. The defensin-derived AMPs disrupt negatively charged phospholipids on the cell membrane, showing direct cytotoxic activity against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and cancer cell lines as well as induce apoptosis by disrupting the mitochondrial membrane; however, it does not demonstrate cytotoxic activity against normal mammalian cells. AMPs also show telomerase inhibition activity. They showed therapeutic effects in MRSA and Escherichia coli (E. coli)-infected mice, with very weak antigenicity. The AMP-immobilized fibers exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), including MRSA, and the activity was maintained even after repetitive washing and sterilization by autoclaving. These results suggest that the AMP-immobilized fibers are promising for use as novel antimicrobial materials.

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© 2016 The Juntendo Medical Society. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original source is properly credited.
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