2019 Volume 65 Issue Supplement Pages S38-S41
Inspite that rice is a main staple and heaviliy consumed in most of Asian populations, health effect of rice has been less examined in nutritional epidemiologic studies compared to those of foods such as fruits, vegetables, meats and fish. Some recent meta-analyses that collected prospective cohort studies reported the associations between rice intake and incidence of and mortality from some chronic diseases especially type 2 diabetes. Concerning type 2 diabetes, the results are remarkably different between white (polished) rice and brown (unpolished) rice: the former increased and the latter decreased the risk. This difference may partly be explained by the different types and amounts of dietary fiber and different scores of dietary glycemic index. However, the results on dietary fiber and dietary glycemic index were not necessarily consistent. Indirect effect of rice intake has been examined through the studies on association of dietary patterns and breakfast skipping to type 2 diabetes. However, most of the results were inconclusive. Simple and straightforward judgement on the effect of rice to type 2 diabete should be avoided, and more nutritional epidemiologic studies with high research quality, including basic studies on dietary assessment, are needed, especially in Asian populations.