2019 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 33-43
Mediterranean olive trees have been cultivated in Pakistan for decades to promote olive cultivation and use of olive oil. The qualitative characteristics of seven mono and one multi-varietal extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) extracted from Italian cultivars grown in different areas of Balochistan a southwestern province of Pakistan were evaluated. Present study aims to assess the impact of bioclimatological change on biochemical profile of exotic cultivars. The dominating fatty acids found in analyzed EVOOs were oleic (65-72%), linoleic (10.61-18.33%) and palmitic acids (12-16%). The tocopherols α, (β+γ) and δ contents showed a great diversity which ranged from (60-408) mg/kg while, total phenol concentration ranged from (200-370) mg/kg. The analyses of phenolic compounds revealed the presence of phenolic acids, phenolic alcohols, secoiridoids, flavonoids, oleuropein and verbascosides. One-way ANOVA revealed significant differences (p < 0.05) regarding studied parameters. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the main components and to classify samples into groups in terms of fatty acids and phenolic profiles. The first group (Frantoio, Moraiolo, Pendolino, Multi-varietal mixture) characterized by high amount of oleic acid and MUFAs/PUFAs ratio. The second group (Maurino and Leccino) correlates with SFAs and third (Ottobrattica, Coratina) with PUFAs. Based on the PCA of phenolic profile the studied cultivars were divided into two main groups. Morialo, Pendolino and Maurino correlated with (phenolic acids, hydroxytyrosol, flavonoids and secoiridoids). Frantoio, Ottobrattica, Coratina, multi-varietal and Leccino were correlated with oleuropein, tyrosol and ligstroside aglycon. The obtained data was compared with those obtained from same cultivars in their original and/or different growing area. Marked differences were observed in the composition of oleic, linoleic, palmitic acids, secoiridoids and total phenolic contents. These differences could be due to change in geographical location and climatical condition of Balochistan. The cultivar Moraiolo has shown best adaptation and preserved its biochemical composition among all studied cultivars.