2021 Volume 46 Issue 1 Pages 16-22
The discovery of juvenile hormones (JH) and their synthetic analogs (JHA) generated excitement and hope that these compounds will replace first- and second-generation insecticides that have not so desirable environmental and human safety profiles. However, JHAs used commercially during the past four decades did not meet these expectations. The recent availability of advanced molecular and histological methods and the discovery of key players involved in JH action provided some insights into the functioning of JHA in a stage and species-specific manner. In this review, we will summarize recent findings and stage-specific action of JHA, focusing on three commercially used JHA, methoprene, hydroprene and pyriproxyfen and economically important pests, the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, and disease vector, the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.