2012 年 1 巻 1 号 p. 73-82
Humans have physiological, intellectual, and cultural capabilities to maintain viable body temperatures under several conditions. We do exercise in daily living for labor, health, and just fun. However, exercise is one of the strong factors disturbing the maintenance of body temperature. Some conditions, such as heavy exercise in thermal extremes, could rapidly lead to dangerous internal temperatures. Body temperature constancy is achieved by two major processes: i) behavioral processes of maintaining or searching for a preferable environment and ii) autonomic processes, e.g. vasodilation of the skin, sweating and shivering. The thermal load posed by the environment or by heavy exercise may be too great for the capacity of the regulators. Or, the regulator could be deranged due to extreme temperatures. Accidents during exercise often involve a compromise of many aspects of thermal balance; and an altered body temperature is very likely. In the present review, recent knowledge is looked at about the thermoregulation system, focusing on its defense mechanisms against the thermal load due to exercise and pathophysiological reasons for incidences of abnormal body temperature during exercise.