2022 Volume 72 Issue 5 Pages 343-354
The timing of heading is largely affected by environmental conditions. In wheat, Vrn-1 and Ppd-1 have been identified as the major genes involved in vernalization requirement and photoperiod sensitivity, respectively. To compare the effects of Vrn-1 and Ppd-1 alleles on heading time under different environments, we genotyped Vrn-1 and Ppd-1 homoeologues and measured the heading time at Morioka, Tsukuba and Chikugo in Japan for two growing seasons. A total of 128 Japanese and six foreign varieties, classified into four populations based on the 519 genome-wide SNPs, were used for analysis. Varieties with the spring alleles (Vrn-D1a or Vrn-D1b) at the Vrn-D1 locus and insensitive allele (Hapl-I) at the Ppd-D1 locus were found in earlier heading varieties. The effects of Vrn-D1 and Ppd-D1 on heading time were stronger than those of the other Vrn-1 and Ppd-1 homoeologues. Analysis of variance revealed that heading time was significantly affected by the genotype-environment interactions. Some Vrn-1 and Ppd-1 alleles conferred earlier or later heading in specific environments, indicating that the effect of both alleles on the timing of heading depends on the environment. Information on Vrn-1 and Ppd-1 alleles, together with heading time in various environments, provide useful information for wheat breeding.