Article ID: 20089
Understanding genetic diversity among local populations is a primary goal of modern crop breeding programs. Here, we demonstrated the genetic relationships of rice varieties in Hokkaido, Japan, one of the northern limits of rice cultivation around the world. Furthermore, artificial selection during rice breeding programs has been characterized using genome sequences. We utilized 8,565 single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertion/deletion markers distributed across the genome in genotype-by-sequencing for genetic diversity analyses. Phylogenetics, genetic population structure, and principal component analysis showed that a total of 110 varieties were classified into four distinct clusters according to different populations geographically and historically. Furthermore, the genome sequences of 19 rice varieties along with historic representations in Hokkaido, nucleotide diversity and FST values in each cluster revealed that artificial selection of elite phenotypes focused on chromosomal regions. These results clearly demonstrated the history of the selections on agronomic traits as genome sequences among current rice varieties from Hokkaido.