2019 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 293-300
The Octave technic in piano playing have been related to Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (PRMDs). It has been reported that various wrist positions in piano playing affected muscle activities in the wrist extensor and flexor. The aim of this study was to examine the muscle activities of upper extremities in octave technique with various wrist positions comparing with those of chord technique. Participants were eight undergraduate and eight graduate students of piano major. Participants played octave and chord tasks with four playing style; ordinally wrist posture (OWP), neutral wrist posture (NWP), flexed wrist posture (FWP), and extend wrist posture (EWP). Surface electromyogram (EMG) was recorded in eleven muscles. Obtained EMG was rectified and integrated (IEMG). The IEMG of NWP, FWP and EWP was standardized with the relative value of that of OWP. The playing-style of the smallest muscle activities was NWP. The muscle activity of biceps brachii in octave technic was smaller than that of chord. It is likely that when the finger was lifted upward due to the reaction force from the keyboard in chord technic, the forearm was raised higher in order to obtain the target sound dynamics. Significant interaction between playing-style and technic was observed in extensor digitorum and abductor pollicis brevis. It was likely that the tactics to stabilize finger joint differ by playing-style and technic.