This study examined the effects of uni- and bilateral muscle training programs to strengthen elbow flexors on force-velocity-power relationships during elbow flexion in elderly men. The relationships were measured using an arm ergometer before and after training performed by 9 elderly men, who were divided into 2 groups: uni- (n=4) and bilateral (n=5). The former and latter performed 7-10 repetitions of dumbbell and barbell curls, respectively, in the lifting phase with a load of 80% 1 RM（1 repetition maximum）at 3 sets a day, 3 days a week for 8 weeks. As a result, 1 RM showed a significant increase only in unilateral training. The force-velocity relationship improved the muscle contraction speed under the same condition as the training and at the maximum power was the same. Based on the results, unilateral training may be more effective to increase muscle power of unilateral movement than bilateral training in elderly men.
The Octave technic in piano playing have been related to Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (PRMDs). It has been reported that various wrist positions in piano playing affected muscle activities in the wrist extensor and flexor. The aim of this study was to examine the muscle activities of upper extremities in octave technique with various wrist positions comparing with those of chord technique. Participants were eight undergraduate and eight graduate students of piano major. Participants played octave and chord tasks with four playing style; ordinally wrist posture (OWP), neutral wrist posture (NWP), flexed wrist posture (FWP), and extend wrist posture (EWP). Surface electromyogram (EMG) was recorded in eleven muscles. Obtained EMG was rectified and integrated (IEMG). The IEMG of NWP, FWP and EWP was standardized with the relative value of that of OWP. The playing-style of the smallest muscle activities was NWP. The muscle activity of biceps brachii in octave technic was smaller than that of chord. It is likely that when the finger was lifted upward due to the reaction force from the keyboard in chord technic, the forearm was raised higher in order to obtain the target sound dynamics. Significant interaction between playing-style and technic was observed in extensor digitorum and abductor pollicis brevis. It was likely that the tactics to stabilize finger joint differ by playing-style and technic.
Work engagement was recently introduced as a positive concept contradictory to burnout. Nurses who are actively engaged in their work are considered to be full of vitality, feel confident in their duties, and are able to cope well with the demands of work. This study aimed to elucidate the present situation of work engagement in hospitals for community-based care (Hs-C-BC). The Japanese version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) was administered to nurses in 137 facilities in four prefectures in the Tokai region using. The valid response rate was 41.6% (N = 570). In an exploratory factor analysis, no items had factor loadings below 0.40 and all question items converged on the first factor. Regarding item-total correlation, all question items were correlated with each other. Ceiling and floor effects were not exhibited. Therefore, the UWES was judged to be usable in Hs-C-BC. The UWES revealed that family support, continuous learning, and duty position were important for nurses, in addition to support systems and human relationships in Hs-C-BC. Through continuous learning and being supported by their families and friends, nurses can be positively engaged in their work based on their duty positions.
Marked changes in lifestyle, such as those associated with the retirement of collegiate athletes, have been shown to increase the risk of obesity. Beta3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) polymorphisms have been implicated in the prevalence of obesity and being overweight. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether body weight and fat in retired Japanese collegiate athletes are associated by ADRB3 and UCP-1 polymorphisms. Fifty male soccer players from the University Association Football Club participated in the present study. ADRB3 and UCP-1 polymorphisms were extracted from peripheral blood samples. The first body weight and fat measurements were performed immediately after the end of the competition period in the middle of October (Active athlete data). The second set of measurements were conducted in the middle of March (Retirement data). One-week diet records were also completed immediately before the end of each measurement. Significant increases were observed in body weight (from 63.0±6.2 to 65.1±9.5 kg, P ＜ 0.01) and fat (from 15.2±3.4 to 17.3±3.3%, P ＜ 0.001) during retirement despite significant (P ＜ 0.001) reductions in dietary energy intake. Changes in (delta) body fat correlated ( r = 0.733, P ＜ 0.001) with changes in dietary energy intake. However, ADRB3 and UCP-1 polymorphisms were not associated with increases in body weight and fat in retired Japanese collegiate athletes. In conclusion, ADRB3 and UCP-1 polymorphisms did not associate increases in body weight and fat in retired Japanese collegiate athletes.