2021 年 61 巻 1 号 p. 1-9
As HLA haploidentical related donors are quickly available, HLA haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haploHSCT) using high-dose post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) is now widely used. Recent basic and clinical studies revealed the details of immune reconstitution after T-cell replete haploHSCT using PTCy. T cells and NK cells in the graft proliferate abundantly at day 3 post-haploHSCT, and the PTCy eliminates these proliferating cells. After ablation of proliferating mature cells, donor-derived NK cell reconstitution occurs after the second week; however, recovering NK cells remain functionally impaired for at least several months after haploHSCT. PTCy depletes proliferating cells, resulting in the preferential accumulation of Treg and CD4+ T cells, especially the memory stem T cell (TSCM) phenotype. TSCM capable of both self-renewal and differentiation into effector T cells may play an important role in the first month of immune reconstitution. Subsequently, de novo T cells progressively recover but their levels remain well below those of donor CD4+ T cells at the first year after haploHSCT. The phenotype of recovering T cells after HSCT is predominantly effector memory, whereas B cells are predominantly phenotypically naive throughout the first year after haploHSCT. B cell recovery depends on de novo generation and they are not detected until week 4 after haploHSCT. At week 5, recovering B cells mostly exhibit an unconventional transitional cell phenotype and the cell subset undergoes maturation. Recent advances in immune reconstitution have improved our understanding of the relationship between haploHSCT with PTCy and the clinical outcome.