2023 年 61 巻 1 号 p. 9-20
Optical measurement techniques have many features suitable for biomedical applications. This review paper summarizes the fundamental principles and techniques of optical measurement with a focus on biomedical applications. First, the physical properties and parameters of light are presented. Next, the basic elements of optical measurement, such as units, light sources, photodetectors, image sensors, lenses, optical fibers, integrating spheres, and lock-in amplifiers, are described. Then, the basic techniques of optical measurement, such as spectroscopy, optical interferometry, time-resolved measurement, and scattering measurement, are explained. Examples of applied optical measurement are introduced as laboratory test instruments, pulse oximeters, optical fiber sensors, structural imaging, and functional imaging.