Many stinkbugs in the superfamily Coreoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) develop crypts in the posterior midgut, harboring Caballeronia (Burkholderia) symbionts. These symbionts form a monophyletic group in Burkholderia sensu lato, called the “stinkbug-associated beneficial and environmental (SBE)” group, recently reclassified as the new genus Caballeronia. SBE symbionts are separated into the subclades SBE-α and SBE-β. Previous studies suggested a regional effect on the symbiont infection pattern; Japanese and American bug species are more likely to be associated with SBE-α, while European bug species are almost exclusively associated with SBE-β. However, since only a few insect species have been investigated, it remains unclear whether region-specific infection is general. We herein investigated Caballeronia gut symbionts in diverse Japanese, European, and North American populations of a cosmopolitan species, the Western conifer seed bug Leptoglossus occidentalis (Coreoidea: Coreidae). A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene demonstrated that SBE-β was the most dominant in all populations. Notably, SBE-α was rarely detected in any region, while a third clade, the “Coreoidea clade” occupied one fourth of the tested populations. Although aposymbiotic bugs showed high mortality, SBE-α- and SBE-β-inoculated insects both showed high survival rates; however, a competition assay demonstrated that SBE-β outcompeted SBE-α in the midgut crypts of L. occidentalis. These results strongly suggest that symbiont specificity in the Leptoglossus-Caballeronia symbiotic association is influenced by the host rather than geography, while the geographic distribution of symbionts may be more important in other bugs.