A relatively high incidence of chronic limb pain, frequently complicated by violent, tremulous involuntary movements, has been noted in Japanese girls following human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. The average incubation period after the first dose of the vaccine was 5.47±5.00 months. Frequent manifestations included headaches, general fatigue, coldness of the legs, limb pain and weakness. The skin temperature examined in the girls with limb symptoms exhibited a slight decrease in the fingers and a moderate decrease in the toes. Digital plethysmograms revealed a reduced height of the waves, especially in the toes. The limb symptoms of the affected girls were compatible with the diagnostic criteria for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). The Schellong test identified a significant number of patients with orthostatic hypotension and a few patients with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Electron–microscopic examinations of the intradermal nerves showed an abnormal pathology in the unmyelinated fibers in two of the three girls examined. The symptoms observed in this study can be explained by abnormal peripheral sympathetic responses. The most common previous diagnosis in the studied girls was psychosomatic disease. Additionally delayed manifestation of cognitive dysfunction in the post–vaccinated girls has been paid much attention: memory loss, difficulty in reading textbooks and/or calculation.