Low energy ion scattering spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the analysis of the topmost surface composition and structure. Low energy atom scattering spectroscopy is a quite useful tool for the analysis of the topmost insulator surfaces, as well. Because the primary beams of low energy atom scattering are electrically neutral. This report provides some of the basic principles relating to the interaction between low energy particles (ions/atoms) and topmost surfaces. Due to the large amount of research carried out in this field, selected materials are shown in this report.